Advanced Glycation End Products And Diabetes Pdf Type
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- Advanced glycation end products and diabetic complications: a general overview.
- Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetic Complications
- Advanced glycation end products, diabetes and ageing
The occurrence and development of cardiovascular complications are predominantly responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in patients with diabetes.
Advanced glycation end products and diabetic complications: a general overview.
Hyperglycemic conditions and disruptions to glucose-regulating pathways lead to increased formation of highly reactive aldehydes, methylglyoxal and glyoxal, which react with certain arginine and lysine residues in proteins to form advanced glycation end products AGEs. These AGEs damage the integrity of the retinal vasculature predominantly through two mechanisms: non-receptor-mediated damage, which pertains to the interaction with extracellular matrix and its functional properties, and receptor-mediated damage through AGE interactions with their receptors RAGE on pericytes and Muller cells. Both mechanisms result in increased permeability of endothelial tight junctions, and this increased permeability can lead to leaking and eventually ischemia. Once this ischemia becomes significant, neovascularization can occur, the hallmark of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Current pharmaceutical studies have shown the potential of AGE inhibitors, such as aminoguanidine, in decreasing AGE production, thus minimizing its effects in hyperglycemic conditions. Future research will not only continue to understand the properties of AGEs and their effects on diabetes and diabetic complications like diabetic retinopathy but will also explore how they impact other diseases.
During long standing hyperglycaemic state in diabetes mellitus, glucose forms covalent adducts with the plasma proteins through a non-enzymatic process known as glycation. Protein glycation and formation of advanced glycation end products AGEs play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy along with some other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and aging. Glycation of proteins interferes with their normal functions by disrupting molecular conformation, altering enzymatic activity, and interfering with receptor functioning. AGEs form intra- and extracellular cross linking not only with proteins, but with some other endogenous key molecules including lipids and nucleic acids to contribute in the development of diabetic complications. Recent studies suggest that AGEs interact with plasma membrane localized receptors for AGEs RAGE to alter intracellular signaling, gene expression, release of pro-inflammatory molecules and free radicals. The present review discusses the glycation of plasma proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen, globulins and collagen to form different types of AGEs.
Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetic Complications
Advanced glycation end products AGEs are formed in vivo by a non-enzymatic reaction of proteins with carbohydrates and accumulate in many tissues during ageing. They are discussed as being responsible for many age- and diabetes-related diseases. On the other hand, AGEs are formed by the heating of food and are taken up by the nutrition. The contribution of endogenously formed versus exogenous intake of AGEs to age-related diseases is still under discussion. Fortgeschrittene Glykierungsendprodukte AGEs werden in vivo durch eine nicht-enzymatische chemische Reaktion von Proteinen mit Kohlenhydraten gebildet und reichern sich in vielen Geweben mit dem Alter an. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Broken limits to life expectancy.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) terbentuk akibat panas dalam Full Text: PDF Sandu O, Song K, Cai W, Zheng F, Uribarri J, Vlassara H. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in high-fat-fed mice are linked to high glycotoxin intake.
Advanced glycation end products, diabetes and ageing