Canaanite Myth And Hebrew Epic Pdf

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The essays in this volume address key aspects of Israelite religious development.

Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Nahum M. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. The book closes with a chapter on the origins of the apocalyptic priestly community at Qumran which, on archaeological and paleographical grounds, are dated to circa BCE. The "Wicked Priest" is identified with Simon Maccabeus and the rise and crystallization of the Essenes is traced to the events of his times.

No reader of this work will fail to be impressed by the immense erudition displayed by Cross in his extensive citation of sources and in his bibliographical annotation. There is no doubt that a new chapter has been opened in biblical scholarship and that the book will be the subject of debate, modification, and refinement for some time to come. It is in this spirit that the following observations are offered Despite everything, the identification of 'el names in the patriarchal traditions with epithets of the Canaanite divinity does not, as yet, rest on such solid grounds as would appear to be the case.

This is incorrect since the phrase occurs only in Judges The difficulty of explaining sadday shows that it is not a Hebrew equivalent of another Northwest Semitic term. Cross twice refers to the "Bull of Jacob," an epithet of the patriarchal God supposedly corresponding to the Ugaritic "Bull El" pp.

Surprisingly, no reference is made to the fact that the received Hebrew vocalization carefully distinguishes 'abir, exclusively used of God Gen. It may, of course, be maintained that this distinction is artificial and dogmatic, the product of later sensitivity. Against this is the fact that the Ugaritic title is invariably tr 'il, never 'ibr 'il, even though 'ibr, "bull," is also found in that language.

Why should the Hebrew not have carried over the Canaanite epithet, especially since tor is found in connection with the golden calf episode in Psalm , and since the Ugaritic title may actually be embedded in the consonantal text of Hosea cf. NEB ad loc. Incidentally, on page Cross himself translates Psalm "Jacob's champion. It is never employed by Abraham and the plural noun, as used in Exodus , refers to the three Israelite patriarchs.

In other words, the Genesis narratives implicitly suggest a break, religiously speaking, between Abraham and his forebears. This links up with another phenomenon, that the patriarchs are never depicted as worshiping at existing shrines but always as building new ones. Here again, the traditions exhibit a marked tendency to dissociate patriarchal religion from its contemporary forms.

This raises the question as to what is meant by speaking of a Canaanite-Israelite religious continuum and the denial of "novelty" pp. None can gainsay the Near Eastern impact upon Israel. The question is, though, what did Israel do with that which it inherited? Where did the admittedly "atypical biblical creation account" p.

How did the biblical anti-pagan polemic arise? Why do the sources exhibit a profound consciousness of difference between Israel and its neighbors?

If Cross uses a term like "mythic tension," this presupposes a living reality behind the language of mythology that undoubtedly exists in biblical literature. Do the facts warrant this conclusion?

It must be remembered that mythological references are confined to poetic texts, are invariably fragmentary, and cover an extremely limited range of themes. Does not the complete absence of any mythic language relating to goddesses weaken the argument for a "continuum"? And what about the transformation through moralization of obviously Canaanite themes, such as Psalm ?

Do all the sources that Cross cites unequivocally support his thesis? It is difficult to find the creation theme in Psalm p.

On page Cross refers to Baal's "battle of creation. In fact, it is El who is the creator god. In this respect, the Canaanite myths are at variance with their Mesopotamian counterparts. These observations are not intended to prove that Cross's thesis is invalid. They merely draw attention to some aspects of this very important book that require further investigation. Related Papers. By David Biale. By Daniel McClellan.

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Works Cited

Home Contacts About Us. When the Hebrews entered Canaan they were rude nomads of the desert, while the Canaanites had attained a high civilization. As the myths of ancient Ugarit indicate, the religion of the Canaanite peoples was a crude and debased form of ritual polytheism. It is in this mode that we find the religi on of the Canaani tes. Those of us raised with a constitutional commitment to the separation of church and state must remember that this modern societal construction bears no resemblance to ancient society. Canaanite Mythology, by Cyrus H. Scanned and uploaded by Robert Bedrosian.


The essays in this volume address key aspects of Israelite religious development. Cross traces the continuities between early Israelite religion and the.


Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel

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Hebrew Studies

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The essays in this volume address key aspects of Israelite religious development. Cross traces the continuities between early Israelite religion and the Canaanite culture from which it emerged; explores the tension between the mythic and the historical in Israel's religious Cross traces the continuities between early Israelite religion and the Canaanite culture from which it emerged; explores the tension between the mythic and the historical in Israel's religious expression; and examines the reemergence of Canaanite mythic material in the apocalypticism of early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls. The essays in this study are all written with the complementary breadth of scope and attention to detail characteristic of Cross; each one is stimulating and several are a mine of information beyond the confines of the essay's topic.

The purpose of this paper is to examine those areas of agricultural and religious life that intersected with each and influenced the way people thought of God or the gods. We will start with the premise that in the Ancient Near East religion was intrinsically connected to agriculture and fertility, though not entirely defined by them. It is also plausible that people shared a concept of God gods that at times was shaped by their interaction with natural phenomena like rain, drought, storms, flooding, and animal and crop plagues. To evaluate the strength of this idea we will examine a number of cultic texts that appear to have presumed the link between weather, agriculture and religion. In the later part of our study, we will ask to what extent Biblical men and women were influenced by Ancient Near Eastern religious thought.


Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge, Mass Article PDF first page preview. Article PDF.


Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic

3 Comments

  1. Ulla L. 13.05.2021 at 20:24

    Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Frank Moore Cross. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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