Human Brain Parts And Their Functions Pdf

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human brain parts and their functions pdf

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The occipital lobe is the part of the human brain responsible for interpreting information from the eyes and turning it into the world as a person sees it. The occipital lobe has four different sections, each of which is responsible for different visual functions. Disorder in the occipital lobe may cause disorder in the vision or the brain itself.

It also integrates sensory impulses and information to form perceptions, thoughts, and memories. The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: The cerebrum , with its cerebral cortex, gives us conscious control of our actions. The diencephalon mediates sensations, manages emotions, and commands whole internal systems. The cerebellum adjusts body movements, speech coordination, and balance, while the brain stem relays signals from the spinal cord and directs basic internal functions and reflexes.

Duvernoy’s Atlas of the Human Brain Stem and Cerebellum

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. It plays a role in just about every major body system. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The two hemispheres are separated by a groove called the interhemispheric fissure.

Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into broad regions called lobes. Each lobe is associated with different functions:. The cerebellum is located in the back of the brain, just below the occipital lobes. It also helps the body maintain its posture, equilibrium, and balance.

The thalamus acts as a kind of relay station for signals coming into the brain. The epithalamus serves as a connection between the limbic system and other parts of the brain. The hypothalamus helps maintain homeostasis.

This refers to the balance of all bodily functions. It does this by:. The brain stem is located in front of the cerebellum and connects to the spinal cord. It consists of three major parts:. There are hundreds of conditions that can affect the brain.

Most of them fall within one of five main categories:. Learn more about the different types of brain conditions. Brain injury symptoms depend on the type and severity of the injury. While they sometimes appear immediately after a traumatic event, they can also show up hours or days later. Neurodegenerative diseases cause damage to nervous tissue over time, so their symptoms may get worse as time goes on.

Symptoms of psychological conditions can be very different from person to person, even when they involve the same condition. Follow these tips to keep your brain in good health and to reduce your risk of certain brain conditions:.

Improve your mental fitness by regularly reading, learning, or doing activities that make you think, such as crossword puzzles. All of these help stimulate your nerve cells, and may even lead to the development of new brain cells. Always wear a helmet when playing contact sports. Be sure to buckle up when you get in the car. Both of these can go a long way when it comes to avoiding brain injuries. While smoking is bad for your overall health , it can also lead to cognitive decline.

Try to check in from time to time with your thoughts or feelings. Keeping a diary is a good way to get into this habit. Look for any thought patterns or emotions that seem to be impacting your day-to-day life. They could be a sign of an underlying, treatable psychological condition.

The amygdaloid body is also known as the amygdaloid nucleus. This is an oval structure located within the temporal lobe of the human brain. In the brain, oxygenated blood travels through an extensive and central cerebral arterial circle.

This network is called the circle of Willis. The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh blood.

Blood supply to…. The occipital bone is the trapezoidal-shaped bone found at the lower-back area of the cranium. The occipital is cupped like a saucer in order to house…. The thalamus is located deep within the brain in the cerebral cortex, adjacent to the hypothalamus.

It is a symmetrical structure, situated on top of…. The superior colliculus refers to the rostral front bump on the lateral side part of the midbrain.

It is, in fact, a pair of two colliculi…. The posterior pericallosal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the arteries serving the brain. In some individuals it may be absent…. The middle cerebral artery MCA is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. It branches off the internal…. In the central nervous system, there are three different layers that cover the spinal cord and brain. These are called the meninges, and their three…. The sigmoid sinus is a dural venous sinus that lies deep within the human head, and just below the brain.

A dural sinus is a channel that lies between…. Brain Overview. Medically reviewed by Seunggu Han, M. Anatomy and function Brain diagram Conditions Symptoms Health tips We include products we think are useful for our readers. What is the brain? Some of its main functions include: processing sensory information regulating blood pressure and breathing releasing hormones. Anatomy and function. Cerebrum The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Each lobe is associated with different functions: Frontal lobes.

The frontal lobes are the largest of the lobes. They coordinates high-level behaviors, such as motor skills, problem solving, judgment, planning, and attention. The frontal lobes also manage emotions and impulse control. Parietal lobes. The parietal lobes are located behind the frontal lobes. Temporal lobes. The temporal lobes are located on either side of the head on the same level as the ears. They coordinate specific functions, including visual memory such as facial recognition , verbal memory such as understanding language , and interpreting the emotions and reactions of others.

Occipital lobes. The occipital lobes are located in the back of the brain. Cerebellum The cerebellum is located in the back of the brain, just below the occipital lobes. Diencephalon The diencephalon is located at the base of the brain. It contains the: thalamus epithalamus hypothalamus The thalamus acts as a kind of relay station for signals coming into the brain.

It does this by: maintaining daily physiological cycles, such as the sleep-wake cycle controlling appetite regulating body temperature controlling the producing and release of hormones Brain stem The brain stem is located in front of the cerebellum and connects to the spinal cord. It consists of three major parts: Midbrain.

The midbrain helps control eye movement and processes visual and auditory information. This is the largest part of the brain stem. The pons also contains the start of some of the cranial nerves.

These nerves are involved in facial movements and transmitting sensory information. Medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the brain. It acts as the control center for the function of the heart and lungs. It helps regulate many important functions, including breathing, sneezing, and swallowing. Brain diagram. Use this interactive 3-D diagram to explore the brain. Brain conditions. Symptoms of a brain condition.

Brain injury symptoms Brain injury symptoms depend on the type and severity of the injury. General brain injury symptoms may include: headache nausea or vomiting feeling confused or disoriented dizziness feeling tired or drowsy speech problems, including slurring sleeping more or less than usual dilation of one or both pupils fluid draining from your nose or ears seizures sensory problems, such as blurry vision or a ringing in your ears trouble remembering things or difficulty concentrating mood swings or unusual behavior Cerebrovascular injury symptoms Symptoms tend to come on suddenly and include: severe headache loss of vision inability to speak inability to move or feel a part of the body drooping face coma Brain tumor symptoms Brain tumor symptoms depend on the size, location, and type of tumor.

General brain tumor symptoms may include: headache nausea or vomiting loss of motor coordination, such as trouble walking feeling sleepy feelings of weakness appetite changes convulsions or seizures issues with your vision, hearing, or speech difficulty concentrating mood swings or behavior changes Neurodegenerative symptoms Neurodegenerative diseases cause damage to nervous tissue over time, so their symptoms may get worse as time goes on.

General neurodegenerative symptoms include: memory loss or forgetfulness changes in mood, personality, or behavior issues with motor coordination, such as difficulty walking or staying balanced speech issues, such as slurring or hesitation before speaking Psychological symptoms Symptoms of psychological conditions can be very different from person to person, even when they involve the same condition. Some general symptoms of a psychological condition include: excessive feelings of fear, worry, or guilt feeling sad or dejected confusion difficulty concentrating low energy extreme stress that gets in the way of daily activities extreme mood swings withdrawal from loved ones or activities delusions or hallucinations suicidal ideation.

Tips for a healthy brain. Follow these tips to keep your brain in good health and to reduce your risk of certain brain conditions: Use it or lose it Improve your mental fitness by regularly reading, learning, or doing activities that make you think, such as crossword puzzles.

Protect your head Always wear a helmet when playing contact sports. Exercise Doing regular cardio workouts stimulates blood flow throughout your body, including your brain. Quit smoking While smoking is bad for your overall health , it can also lead to cognitive decline.

Human Brain: Facts, Functions & Anatomy

It is edited by Dr. The Journal accepts works on basic as well applied research on any field of neurology. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact.


The brain can stay alive for minutes without oxygen; after that, cells begin to die. More electrical impulses are generated in one day by a single human brain.


The Human Brain: Anatomy and Function

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system , and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum , the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body , processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs , and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body.

Everything you need to know about the occipital lobe

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The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time.

The brain is a remarkably complex organ comprised of billions of interconnected neurons and glia. It is a bilateral, or two-sided, structure that can be separated into distinct lobes. Each lobe is associated with certain types of functions, but, ultimately, all of the areas of the brain interact with one another to provide the foundation for our thoughts and behaviors. It can be said that the spinal cord is what connects the brain to the outside world. Because of it, the brain can act.

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    Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.

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