Developments In Soil Salinity Assessment And Reclamation Pdf
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India would require around million tons of food grains cereals and pulses during to feed around 1. To achieve food security in the country, the attempts need to focus on both area expansion under agriculture as well as rise in crop productivity.
- Guideline for Salinity Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Using Nuclear and Related Techniques
- Developments in Soil Salinity Assessment and Reclamation
- Soil Salinity and Food Security in India
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The objective of this book is to develop protocols for salinity and sodicity assessment and develop mitigation and adaptation measures to use saline and sodic soils sustainably. The focus is on important issues related to salinity and sodicity and to describe these in an easy and user friendly way. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the terms salinity and sodicity and describes various salinity classification systems commonly used around the world. Chapter 2 reviews global distribution of salinization and socioeconomic aspects related to salinity and crop production.
Guideline for Salinity Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Using Nuclear and Related Techniques
The objective of this book is to develop protocols for salinity and sodicity assessment and develop mitigation and adaptation measures to use saline and sodic soils sustainably.
The focus is on important issues related to salinity and sodicity and to describe these in an easy and user friendly way. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the terms salinity and sodicity and describes various salinity classification systems commonly used around the world.
Chapter 2 reviews global distribution of salinization and socioeconomic aspects related to salinity and crop production. Chapters 3 covers comprehensively salinity and sodicity adaptation and mitigation options including physical, chemical, hydrological and biological methods. Chapter 4 discusses the efforts that have been made to demonstrate the development of soil salinity zones under different irrigation systems.
Chapter 5 discusses the quality of irrigation water, boron toxicity and relative tolerance to boron, the effects of chlorides on crops. Chapter 6 introduces the role of nuclear techniques in saline agriculture. Open Access. Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Open Access Chapter 1. It is widely recognized that soil salinity has increased over time. It is also triggered with the impact of climate change. For sustainable management of soil salinity, it is essential to diagnose it properly prior to take proper intervention measures.
In this chapter soil salinity dryland and secondary and sodicity concepts have been introduced to make it easier for readers. A hypothetical soil salinity development cycle has been presented. Causes of soil salinization and its damages, socio-economic and environmental impacts, and visual indicators of soil salinization and sodicity have been reported. Procedures for field assessment of soil salinity and sodicity are described and factors to convert EC of different soil:water , Diversified salinity assessment, mapping and monitoring methods, such as conventional field and laboratory and modern electromagnetic-EM38, optical-thin section and electron microscopy, geostatistics-kriging, remote sensing and GIS, automatic dynamics salinity logging system have been used and results are reported providing comprehensive information for selection of suitable methods by potential users.
PDF View full text. Soil salinity is not a recent phenomenon, it has been reported since centuries where humanity and salinity have lived one aside the other. A good example is from Mesopotamia where the early civilizations first flourished and then failed due to human-induced salinization.
Mesopotamia and the Viru valley of Peru. The flooding, over-irrigation, seepage, silting, and a rising water table have been reported the main causes of soil salinization.
Precise information on the recent estimates of global extent of salt-affected soils do not exist, many countries have assessed their soils and soil salinization at the national level, such as Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Middle East, and Australia etc. Soil salinity and sodicity are twin constraints to agriculture production in many countries causing significant losses of crop production and land degradation.
Once the salinity and sodicity problems are properly diagnosed, an integrated soil reclamation program may be formulated including combination of physical, chemical, hydrological and biological methods to rectify the twin problems.
A combination of adaptation and mitigation technologies are to be adopted, for example adaptation allows the continued use of salt-affected soils by adjusting in response to the degree by which salinity and sodicity development has affected the soil, whereas, in contrast, mitigation refers to the technologies which are adopted to stop salinization to occur. It should be remembered that there is no single universal mitigation technology suitable for all soils, however, diagnostic based recommendations work satisfactorily for a specific site or location.
Prior to setting up soil reclamation plan it is essential to review the available resources farmer budget, availability and quality of water and the objectives of reclamation and the reclamation plan established suiting the specific farmer needs.
In this chapter, various soil reclamation methods such as; physical-leveling, subsoiling, mixing sand, seed bed preparation and salts scrapping ; chemical use of gypsum based on gypsum requirement, sulfur, acids etc. In addition, various methods of screening crops against salinity including hydroponics, field screening and serial biological concentration approach are described.
Climate Smart Agriculture practices, integrated soil fertility management using 4 R nutrient stewardship are concisely reported. Procedures of salt-harvesting from saline lands and deep deposits and their commercial exploitation in industries are also introduced.
Selection of suitable irrigation systems drip-surface and subsurface, sprinkler, bubbler, furrow etc. These irrigation systems develop salinity zones differently which needs to be understood for various reasons, such as where to place the seed for good germination and where to apply leaching to maintain the root zone salinity below crop threshold salinity level.
In this chapter emphasis have been made to describe various irrigation systems and zones of salinity development under each system. In surface irrigation system flood, surge, sprinkler, bubbler the maximum salinity is developed in deeper layers based on the wetting front and the lowest salinity is at the surface.
Drip irrigation is often preferred to sprinkler irrigation for species with a high sensitivity to leaf necrosis. In surface drip irrigation salts concentrate along the perimeters of the expanding wetting soil zone, with the lowest salt concentrations occurring in the immediate vicinity of the water source, the highest at the soil surface, and in the very center of any two drippers, i.
In the subsurface drip irrigation, the salts continuously buildup at the soil surface through an upward capillary movement from the buried irrigation lines during growing season, therefore the concept of leaching requirement LR does not work specially to leach the salts from surface above the buried drip lines.
In furrow irrigation system maximum salts accumulate in ridges of soil between the furrows. The salt accumulation in furrow irrigation using different bed shapes flat top bed, sloping beds is shown in different figures giving guidelines to the farmers to place seeds in safe zone to accomplish high germination rate.
Following the salinity development zones, various methods of salinity management are described. Relative crop salinity tolerance rating is described briefly. Prediction of crop yield in salinized farms compared to non-saline farms is also described using Maas and Hoffman equation. The quality of irrigation waters differs in various regions, countries and locations based on how the groundwater has been extracted and used, the rainfall intensity and subsequent aquifer recharge.
The use of groundwater for agriculture in hot arid countries where rainfall is scarce leads to increase groundwater salinity and limits the selection of crops for cultivation. It is therefore important to determine the irrigation water quality. The concentration and composition of soluble salts in water determines its quality for irrigation. Four basic criteria for evaluating water quality for irrigation purposes are described, including water salinity EC , sodium hazard sodium adsorption ratio-SAR , residual sodium carbonates RSC and ion toxicity.
Toxicities of boron and chlorides to plants are described. More specifically the relative tolerance levels of plants to boron is tabulated for easy understanding. The salinity and sodicity classes are included in this chapter to provide information for crop selection and develop salinity and sodicity management options.
The procedures for water salinity reduction through blending of different waters and management of water sodicity using gypsum are described by giving examples. The major constraints under Saline Agriculture are the availability of essential nutrients and water to the plant which are adversely affected by excessive salts in the soil solution.
Among the essential plant nutrients, N plays a key role in plant growth and productivity. Nuclear and isotopic techniques also called nuclear-based techniques are a complement to, not a substitute for, non-nuclear conventional techniques. Nuclear-based techniques, however, do have several advantages over conventional techniques by providing unique, precise and quantitative data on soil nutrient and soil moisture pools and fluxes in the soil-plant-water and atmosphere systems.
Isotopic techniques provide useful information in assessing soil-water-nutrient management which can be tailored to specific agroecosystems for managing soil salinity. For example, 15 N stable isotopic techniques can be used to measure rates of the various N transformation processes in soil-plant-water and atmosphere systems, such as N mineralization-immobilization, nitrification, biological N 2 fixation, N use efficiency, and microbial sources of production of nitrous oxide N 2 O , a greenhouse and ozone depleting gas, in soil.
The use of oxygen, hydrogen-2 deuterium and other isotopes is an integral part of agricultural water management, allowing the identification of water sources and the tracking of water movement and pathways within agricultural landscapes as influenced by different irrigation technologies, cropping systems and farming practices. It also helps in the understanding of plant water use, quantifying crop transpiration and soil evaporation and allows us to devise strategies to improve crop production, reduce unproductive water losses and prevent land and water degradation.
Publisher Springer International Publishing. Print ISBN Electronic ISBN Authors: Dr. Mohammad Zaman Dr. Shabbir A. Shahid Dr. Lee Heng.
Developments in Soil Salinity Assessment and Reclamation
This important addition to the technical literature of ecology is a storehouse of information on marginal soils and waters from around the world. Soil salinity is considered the most important component of land degradation in arid and semi-arid regions, it is dynamic, spreading globally in over countries and covering more than one billion hectares. It is causing significant losses in irrigated agriculture due to poor understanding and management. There have been significant developments in technologies to assess, map and monitor soil salinization spatially and temporally using remote sensing, geographical information system, geophysical methods and modeling, from regional, national to farm levels. The papers assembled here cover topics such as technological advances in soil salinity mapping and monitoring, management and reclamation of salt-affected soils, use of marginal quality water for crop production, salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants, biosaline agriculture and agroforestry, microbiological interventions for marginal soils, opportunities and challenges in using marginal waters, and soil and water management in irrigated agriculture. Focusing on arid and semi-arid regions, the book details recent developments in soil salinity and reclamation aspects in an applied context.
Soil Salinity and Food Security in India
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Shahid , Shabbir A. The papers assembled here cover topics such as technological advances in soil salinity mapping and monitoring, management and reclamation of salt-affected soils, use of marginal quality water for crop production, salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants, biosaline agriculture and agroforestry, microbiological interventions for marginal soils, opportunities and challenges in using marginal waters, and soil and water management in irrigated agriculture.
Этого и ждут от меня читатели. Больные на соседних койках начали приподниматься, чтобы разглядеть, что происходит. Беккер нервно посматривал на медсестру. Пожалуй, дело кончится тем, что его выставят на улицу. Клушар продолжал бушевать: - И этот полицейский из вашего города тоже хорош.
Но уже через минуту парень скривился в гримасе. Он с силой стукнул бутылкой по столу и вцепился в рубашку Беккера. - Она девушка Эдуардо, болван.
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И они делают их все более и более миниатюрными, - подумал. Прикрыв глаза, давая им долгожданный отдых, он вдруг почувствовал, что кто-то тянет его за ногу. - Джабба. Вылезай скорее! - послышался женский голос. Мидж все же его разыскала.
А как же любовь. Он слишком долго обделял. И ради .
Как всегда, валяет дурака, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор не скрывал недовольства. - Он ничего не спрашивал про ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Нет.
Возвращайся домой. Прямо. - Встретимся в Стоун-Мэнор.
Это не имеет отношения к делу. Нуматака выдержал паузу. - А если мистер Беккер найдет ключ.
Здесь шестнадцать групп по четыре знака в каждой. - О, ради Бога, - пробурчал себе под нос Джабба. - Все хотят поиграть в эту игру.
Я хочу уйти. Стратмор глубоко вздохнул. Ясно, что без объяснений ему не обойтись. Она это заслужила, подумал он и принял решение: Сьюзан придется его выслушать.
Приближаясь к пиджаку защитного цвета, он не обращал внимания на сердитый шепот людей, которых обгонял. Прихожане могли понять нетерпение этого человека, стремившегося получить благословение, но ведь существуют строгие правила протокола: подходить к причастию нужно, выстроившись в две линии. Халохот продолжал двигаться. Расстояние между ним и Беккером быстро сокращалось.
Мы позвонили! - не сдавалась Мидж. - Он сказал, что у них все в порядке.
Проституция в Испании запрещена, а сеньор Ролдан был человеком осторожным. Он уже не один раз обжигался, когда полицейские чиновники выдавали себя за похотливых туристов. Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава. Если он скажет да, его подвергнут большому штрафу, да к тому же заставят предоставить одну из лучших сопровождающих полицейскому комиссару на весь уик-энд за здорово живешь.
Прочитав их, Беккер прокрутил в памяти все события последних двенадцати часов. Комната в отеле Альфонсо XIII. Тучный немец, помахавший у него под носом рукой и сказавший на ломаном английском: Проваливай и умри.