Cardiovascular System Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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Circulatory system

The cardiovascular system is a closed system if the heart and blood vessels. The heart pumps blood through a closed system of blood vessels. Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body. The vital importance of the heart is obvious. If one assumes an average rate of contraction of 75 contractions per minute, a human heart would contract approximately , times in one day, more than 39 million times in one year, and nearly 3 billion times during a year lifespan. Each of the major pumping chambers of the heart ejects approximately 70 mL blood per contraction in a resting adult.

The heart itself is made up of 4 chambers, 2 atria and 2 ventricles. De-oxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart via the venous circulation. It is pumped into the right ventricle and then to the lungs where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. The oxygenated blood then travels back to the left side of the heart into the left atria, then into the left ventricle from where it is pumped into the aorta and arterial circulation. The pressure created in the arteries by the contraction of the left ventricle is the systolic blood pressure.

The circulatory system , also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system , is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients such as amino acids and electrolytes , oxygen , carbon dioxide , hormones , and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases , stabilize temperature and pH , and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system , which circulates lymph. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid between cells and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular from Latin words meaning "heart" and "vessel" system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The circulatory system of the blood is seen as having two components, a systemic circulation and a pulmonary circulation. While humans, as well as other vertebrates , have a closed cardiovascular system meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteries , veins and capillaries , some invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system. The lymphatic system, on the other hand, is an open system providing an accessory route for excess interstitial fluid to be returned to the blood.

Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices

Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in. The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels. The heart muscle has three layers and they are as follows:. The heart is equipped with four valves, which allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers. Although the heart chambers are bathed with blood almost continuously, the blood contained in the heart does not nourish the myocardium. Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of the blood vessels have three coats or tunics.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood, which transports materials to and from all parts of the body. The heart pressurizes blood and provides the driving force for its circulation through the blood vessels. Blood moves away from the heart in the arteries and returns to the heart in the veins. Materials entering the body from the external environment e.

Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology

The current approach to understanding cardiac dynamics relies upon movements that adhere to the conventional topographical separation of cardiac muscle into the left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum. Functional analyses have addressed them independently, and this approach has resulted in many suppositions that this report will define and question. Alternatively, cardiac muscle mass is formed by the helix and surrounding circumferential wrap described by Lower in the s [ 1 ], Senac in the s [ 2 ], Krehl in the s [ 3 ], Mall in the s [ 4 ], and more recently by Torrent Guasp [ 5 ]. For example, the left ventricular free wall and septum are usually discussed separately, yet both are formed by the same muscle Figure 1 and their function cannot be separated unless isolated focal lesions exist. For this reason, the anterior descending and posterior descending coronary arteries are simply vascular highways perched upon the top or bottom of the helical muscle forming the septum and its adjacent LV free wall.

Key chapters address animal models for cardiac research, cardiac mapping systems, heart-valve disease, and genomics-based tools and technology. Once again, a companion compact disk offers unique insights into the working heart, providing color images and movies that enhance the understanding of key points within the text. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

The Cardiovascular System — Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology

This site not only includes helpful skeletal images, but also practice questions for each of the covered regions.

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2 Comments

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  2. Valiant D. 16.05.2021 at 11:45

    conducting system of the heart. Explain the events of the cardiac cycle. 6. Define cardiac output and stroke volume.