Biotic Stress And Yield Loss Pdf
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- Factors Affecting Yield of Crops
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- Transcription Factors and Their Roles in Signal Transduction in Plants under Abiotic Stresses.
- Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Plants
Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to an organism by other living organisms, such as bacteria , viruses , fungi , parasites , beneficial and harmful insects, weeds , and cultivated or native plants. Biotic stress remains a broadly defined term and those who study it face many challenges, such as the greater difficulty in controlling biotic stresses in an experimental context compared to abiotic stress.
Plants are subjected to a wide range of environmental stresses which reduces and limits the productivity of agricultural crops. Two types of environmental stresses are encountered to plants which can be categorized as 1 Abiotic stress and 2 Biotic stress. The abiotic stress causes the loss of major crop plants worldwide and includes radiation, salinity, floods, drought, extremes in temperature, heavy metals, etc. On the other hand, attacks by various pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, oomycetes, nematodes and herbivores are included in biotic stresses.
Factors Affecting Yield of Crops
Rapid global warming directly impacts agricultural productivity and poses a major challenge to the present-day agriculture. Although wheat occupies the largest total harvested area The major production losses in wheat are caused more by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature than by biotic insults. Thus, understanding the effects of these stresses becomes indispensable for wheat improvement programs which have depended mainly on the genetic variations present in the wheat genome through conventional breeding. Notably, recent biotechnological breakthroughs in the understanding of gene functions and access to whole genome sequences have opened new avenues for crop improvement. Despite the availability of such resources in wheat, progress is still limited to the understanding of the stress signaling mechanisms using model plants such as Arabidopsis , rice and Brachypodium and not directly using wheat as the model organism. This review presents an inclusive overview of the phenotypic and physiological changes in wheat due to various abiotic stresses followed by the current state of knowledge on the identified mechanisms of perception and signal transduction in wheat.
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Responses of different lentil populations to biotic stress Fusarium wilt disease. Biotic stress wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium is the most devastating soil born stress in lentil Lens culinaris Medik and breeding for host resistance is the best method to control wilt. Three distinct sets comprising of eight variable populations segregating generations, their parents and standard varieties of lentil Lens culinaris Medik were evaluated to observe their responses against Fusarium wilt of lentil in a nested design. The results revealed that the parents, standard varieties and plant progenies in segregating populations were developed through selection of single plants and showed resistance against Fusarium wilt disease. Among all sets, the populations of Set-2 and Set-3 were a good source of variation for resistance against Fusarium wilt disease, which may be evaluated and utilized for the selection of disease resistant plants. The mutated populations A M , B M and AB M showed more resistance in comparison with recombinant populations thus implying that using induced mutation is effective for developing resistance in lentil. Such type of resistant breeding material can minimize the impact of this disease on lentil production and would be an aid to the lentil breeders in developing high yielding and disease resistant varieties.
Transcription Factors and Their Roles in Signal Transduction in Plants under Abiotic Stresses.
A good understanding of dynamics involved in food production is critical for the improvement of food security. It has been demonstrated that an increase in crop yields significantly reduces poverty. Yield, the mass of harvest crop product in a specific area, is influenced by several factors.
Global warming leads to the concurrence of a number of abiotic and biotic stresses, thus affecting agricultural productivity. Occurrence of abiotic stresses can alter plant—pest interactions by enhancing host plant susceptibility to pathogenic organisms, insects, and by reducing competitive ability with weeds. On the contrary, some pests may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Therefore, systematic studies are pivotal to understand the effect of concurrent abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop productivity.
Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Plants
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The natural conditions in which plants and trees grow are neither uniform nor controlled. Many changes or fluctuations, even if they are temporary, can have a negative impact on and stress plants. The factors which can lead to stress can be one of two types: abiotic or biotic. While a few stress factors can be measured in advance and prevented, most have to be dealt with after their occurrence. Thus, it is important to be able to recognize their effects. Abiotic stress factors stem from the environment in which the plant or tree grows and include light, temperature, moisture, nutrients, and soil conditions. Stress due to light usually occurs due to a lack of it.
Поэтому от Хейла не потребовалось вообще никаких усилий: личные коды соответствовали первым пяти ударам по клавиатуре. Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан. Хейл похитил пароли просто так, ради забавы. Теперь же он был рад, что проделал это, потому что на мониторе Сьюзан скрывалось что-то очень важное. Задействованная ею программа была написана на языке программирования Лимбо, который не был его специальностью.