Stages Of Hiv And Aids Pdf
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HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases.
What are the symptoms of HIV infection?
Jump to content. The U. Each person responds uniquely to this decline. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: E. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.
Over the past three decades of intense research on the contribution of viral and host factors determining the variability in HIV-1 infection outcome, HIV pathogenesis is still a fascinating topic that requires further study. An understanding of the exact mechanism of how these factors influencing HIV pathogenesis is critical to the development of effective strategies to prevent infection. This raises another major paradox in HIV pathogenesis about the source of X4 variants and how do they emerge from a relatively homogeneous R5 viral population after transmission. The interactions between viral phenotypes, tropism and co-receptor usage and how they influence HIV pathogenesis are the main themes addressed in this review. A better understanding of the viral and host genetic factors involved in the fitness of X4 and R5 strains of HIV-1 may facilitate development of specific inhibitors against these viral populations to at least reduce the risk of disease progression.
Explaining HIV and AIDS
NCBI Bookshelf. Geneva: World Health Organization; All clinical events or conditions referred to are described in Annex D. View in own window. Some additional specific conditions can be included in regional classifications e.
Pathogenesis of HIV Infection
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex including anal and oral sex , contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding. Methods of prevention include safe sex , needle exchange programs , treating those who are infected , as well as both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. HIV made the jump from other primates to humans in west-central Africa in the early-to-mid 20th century.
There are four stages of HIV and as with all illnesses, how it progresses, how long it takes and the affect it has on the individual depends on a number of factors for example, general health, lifestyle, diet etc. HIV quickly replicates in the body after infection. Some people develop short lived flu-like symptoms for example, headaches, fever, sore throat and a rash within days to weeks after infection. As the name suggests, this stage of HIV infection does not cause outward signs or symptoms.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding.