Southern And Northern Hybridization Pdf

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Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel.

8.7: DNA Analysis- Blotting and Hybridization

Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel.

After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation for nylon or baking for nitrocellulose. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes.

A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it.

This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. Abstract Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel.

Publication types Review.

Hybridization Methods (Southern and Northern Blotting)

Southern blot hybridization refers to the detection of specific DNA fragments that have been separated by gel electrophoresis Figure 1. After the electrophoresis the separated DNA fragments are denaturated and transferred to a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane sheet by blotting. In the blotting the gel is supported on a sponge in a bath of alkali solution, and buffer is sucked through the gel and the sheet by paper towels stacked on top of the nitrocellulose sheet. The buffer denaturates the DNA and transfers the single stranded fragments from the gel to the surface of the sheet, where they adhere firmly. The nitrocellulose sheet containing the bound single-stranded DNA fragments is pealed off the gel and placed in a sealed plastic bag or a box together with buffer containing labelled DNA probe specific for the target DNA sequence. The sheet is exposed to the probe under conditions favouring hybridization. After the hybridization, the sheet is removed from the bag, washed thoroughly to remove unhybridized probes and viewed using autoradiography or ultraviolet light depending on the labels used radioactive of fluorescent.

Southern blot: DNA is detected with a hybridization DNA or RNA probe. Page 2. 6​. WESTERN, NORTHERN, AND SOUTHERN BLOTTING. Northern.

Northern blot

Different blotting techniques are used to identify unique proteins and nucleic acid sequences. Southern, northern, and western blot protocols are similar, and begin with electrophoretic separation of protein and nucleic acid fragments on a gel, which are then transferred to a membrane nitrocellulose membrane, polyvinylidene difluoride PVDF membrane, etc. This enables radiolabeled or enzymatically labeled antibody or DNA probes to bind the immobilized target, and the molecules of interest may then be visualized with various methods. Figure 1, Table 1. Southern blots are used to determine the identity, size, and abundance of specific DNA sequences.

Bands of DNA in an electrophoretic gel form only if most of the DNA molecules are of the same size, such as following a PCR reaction, or restriction digestion of a plasmid. In other situations, such as after restriction digestion of chromosomal genomic DNA, there will be a large number of variable size fragments in the digest and it will appear as a continuous smear of DNA, rather than distinct bands. In this case, it is necessary to use additional techniques to detect the presence of a specific DNA sequence within the smear of DNA separated on an electrophoretic gel. In the first step, DNA is digested with restriction enzymes and separated by gel electrophoresis as discussed above. The blotted DNA is usually covalently attached to the nylon membrane by briefly exposing the blot to UV light.

Northern and Southern blotting are standard molecular biology techniques for identification and quantification of RNA and DNA respectively. Effective isolation and detection of RNA and DNA in molecular biology research is critical to gene discovery, sequencing, and mapping used in diagnostics and industry applications. Northern and Southern blot analysis methods are based on the immobilization of nucleic acid. RNA and fragments are separated by size onto a membrane to allow use of macromolecular probes for identification, detection and visualization. This technique can be used to characterize the expression of RNA from tissue samples or cell cultures.

Southern vs Northern vs Western Blotting Techniques

Southern blotting

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With northern blotting it is possible to observe cellular control over structure and function by determining the particular gene expression rates during differentiation and morphogenesis , as well as in abnormal or diseased conditions. The term 'northern blot' actually refers specifically to the capillary transfer of RNA from the electrophoresis gel to the blotting membrane. However, the entire process is commonly referred to as northern blotting. Northern blotting takes its name from its similarity to the first blotting technique, the Southern blot , named for biologist Edwin Southern. A general blotting procedure [5] starts with extraction of total RNA from a homogenized tissue sample or from cells. Since the gels are fragile and the probes are unable to enter the matrix, the RNA samples, now separated by size, are transferred to a nylon membrane through a capillary or vacuum blotting system.

When the Southern blotting method was applied to RNA, it was termed as Northern Blotting. The Western blot analysis refers to the transfer of proteins to.

Nevertheless, one could not identify one single gene among thousands of fragments of DNA—until Edward Southern 1 introduced his eponymous powerful DNA transfer and probing technique in Afterward, the blotted membrane can be incubated with a radioactive probe specific for the gene fragments of interest, which in turn become visible by placing an x-ray film on top of the membrane. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.


  1. Madeleine B. 05.05.2021 at 11:33

    With Northern blotting,. RNA molecules are transferred and with Western blotting, protein molecules are transferred. Southern blotting. The Southern blot is use to.

  2. Mike H. 08.05.2021 at 14:45

    Transfer of DNA or RNA to filter membranes after size fractionation by agarose gel electrophoresis (Southern or Northern blot). DNA is digested with restriction.

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  4. Tienterunsig 10.05.2021 at 04:04

    Southern blotting is a laboratory technique used to detect a specific DNA sequence in a blood or tissue sample.

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