Why We Make Things And Why It Matters The Education Of A Craftsman Pdf

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Why We Make Things and Why It Matters: The Education of a Craftsman

We investigate the dynamic relation between maker and material through the lens of pottery as illustrated by wheel throwing, claiming that the experience of dialogue signals an emotional involvement with clay.

Drawing on the intimate relationship between movement and emotion, it promotes an open-ended manner of working and permits experiencing with the material, acting into its inherent possibilities.

In conclusion, we suggest that dialogue, whether verbal or nonverbal, constitutes a primary means for making sense of the world at large, animate and inanimate. Making refers to the multi-scalar and dynamic process of producing something skillfully by hand relying on custom and long-established methods. Typically, mastering a craft requires manual dexterity, i. Relating to body posture, postural control, position and orientation, motion, timing, and rhythm, bodily skill emerges from sensorimotor dependencies and may involve conscious experiences and feelings Brinck Thus, Gordon clarifies the advantage of hands-on experiment for textile research in giving access to the sensations and first-person experiences of working with certain materials and techniques.

She describes how reproducing Shaker fabrics using original equipment improved her understanding not only of how experience and feeling continuously inform the process of making, but also of the various efforts and skills that textile production demands.

Additionally to bodily skill, making brings into play a variety of general abilities including affect regulation, imagery, meta-attention, epistemic action, planning, problem-solving, and imagination.

The art of making is a many-sided, multimodal undertaking that challenges understanding in several ways. Cognitive process and material procedure in one, it profits equally from technical proficiency and creative pursuit and being firmly grounded in tradition, shows the signs of a situated practice Brinck ; Lave Sense-making and knowledge are relational , conditioned by the social, cultural, material, and physical environment, and distributed , built into the design of artefacts, infrastructure, techniques, and roles.

They refer to a dialogue without language, a dialogue between body and material. Judging by these descriptions, dialogic relation co-varies with a direct, qualitatively felt involvement with the material at hand that neither unreflective nor reasoned relations capture.

While the mentions of having such a relation are numerous, they also are cursory, and accounts that specify what it entails or describe its emergence are hard to come by.

Turning to the sciences, explanations of skilful action and expert skill in psychology, philosophy, and related areas do not have much to say about experience and dialogue in the process of making, but tend to focus on motor behaviour and sub-personal or implicit processes that are unavailable for voluntary control and inaccessible to conscious awareness.

Because the makers refer to a wordless and dynamic dialogue, dual-process theories that add a level of symbolic and rule-based processing to the implicit processing do not address the heart of the matter. The experience of having a dialogue with materials seems central to the process of making and apparently reflects a highly valued aspect of the crafts practices, largely neglected among researchers.

Our aim is to describe the nature of this experience, using pottery as the prime example. Pottery involves making things out of clay, a natural material created by weathered rock.

The process is complex. Beginning with the selection of the type of clay and the size of the lump, it draws on several distinct skills and techniques and may involve tools and additional materials such as the wheel, knife, kiln, and ceramic glaze. Moreover, there are numerous methods and procedures for decorating, glazing, and firing, and several ways of ordering them, which means the process can take very diverse forms in the hands of different potters.

The choice of pottery rather than any other craft to clarify the dialogic nature of making is motivated by the physical properties of clay, which encourage approaching it as a partner in conversation — and allegedly more strongly so than in the case of other materials in the crafts such as glass, metal, wood, or textile. That certain features of clay invite thinking of it as a conversational partner is widely recognized in the research on craft and as a rule not held to require justification.

Potters are prone to spontaneously describe their relation with clay in terms of involvement and dialogue. By way of example, consider studio potter Bruce Kitts , p. I choose to work with clay because I find it is the most inviting medium to have a conversation with. Through its extreme malleability, multiple transitions and physical stages, and unusual ability to retain memory, clay speaks to us in many ways. The properties that make clay conducive to dialogic engagement are readily noticeable and open to observation.

Footnote 1 Clay is plastic and malleable and responds quickly to touch and movement, although there are clear limits to its elasticity, which makes it resistant. It can be worked for a relatively short time and demands high body involvement and delicacy. In contrast to many other materials that you find within the crafts, the physical properties of clay differ at the outset of the process, while working, and at the end. The overall flexibility and pliability of clay together with its distinct inherent limitations invite active involvement with the material and encourages embarking on systematic and extended, sometimes decades long, exploration of particular techniques or procedures for working it.

Phenomenological investigations describe how a given phenomenon is experienced. In addition to practice-led research, personal statements from potters, although anecdotal, elucidate the practice of throwing by providing a high degree of detail. The present paper draws on several sources and exposes pottery from distinct but compatible perspectives to enrich our understanding of it.

We consult ethnographic studies of making in the crafts and pottery in particular, research about engagement and dialogue in developmental psychology, philosophy and the cognitive sciences, and practice-led research in the crafts, visual arts and design. Finally, one of us has been making wheel-thrown pots for a few years, and her diary notes reflecting her personal experiences have continuously informed the investigation.

We think these statements expose an underlying, unarticulated yet attentive approach to making that is unavailable from an observational perspective.

Importantly, although experience is multimodal and multitemporal, the present shaped by memories of the past and expectations about the future on several time scales Hutchins , p. In an interview in the internet journal 3 Dots Water , Swiss-based ceramist and artist Charlotte Nordin asserts that many beginners approach ceramics as an object:. When you have your first mass of clay in your hands and you put it on the throwing wheel with your bare hands and you make a shape out of it, it is quite emotional.

I just made a bowl! The emotion there is pride, something achieved in terms of a societal marker. This situation stands in contrast to involved making, where the emerging pot is within dialogue, often evoking wonder at times, but wonder that sees the pot as the emergent Other — like the wonder that sometimes arises in engaging with babies, an awe at who they are but in being present to them.

In line with this, Nordin goes on to explain that as experience grows you will realize that the bowl is there because of the dialogue between the clay and your hands, and that the bowl does not really belong to you and is not a mere thing. Nordin adds that the clay has its own expression, which depends on how the clay is responding.

Similar to the relation between child and parent, the relation between potter and clay continues to develop over time. Eventually it permits dialogue. There is not any point in time at which the potter will be fully experienced or will know everything there is to know about clay. In the case of craftsmanship, exercising a skill and learning to exercise it are concomitant, which means that improvement of the skill is continuous with its practice Ryle , p.

Learning and doing defy separation. Deliberately training a skill, e. Making brings together psychological and material processes not solely from the cognitive point of view but phenomenologically too. First , both novice and experienced potters state that working with clay engenders a direct and strong experience of familiarity and relatedness with the material. Working it appears natural and effortless and is fulfilling and strikingly pleasant.

According to Finnish ceramicist and researcher Priska Falin , p. I feel that I have a strong sensitivity towards ceramics as a material and that this sensitivity is an important driver that engages me in my practice. The choice to engage with a specific material such as clay, metal, or textile and devote yourself to the corresponding craft often is made by the passion; it is an ungainsayable imperative that originates in the material.

Nordin, again, attests that she knew that clay was her medium the first time she encountered it. Studio jeweller and writer Bruce Metcalf explains the intensity and immediacy of the experience of connectedness with materials while working them by a certain genetically determined bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence Gardner Natasha Daintry , p. It represents a way of felt experience, of being known and knowing the world through the corporeal.

This connection presents itself as somehow out of the ordinary — as inter-corporeal, between bodies, putting the self in a strangely organic dialogue with materials and things.

The feeling of strong affinity between working with clay and engaging with life recurs in the literature on pottery. The central place that the personal involvement with clay has in the life of many potters, disregarding level of skill, suggests that there is something about the embodied experience of making pottery that calls forth an archetypical, primordial manner of being-in-the-world, of being there tout court , in the guise of a being- with -the-world, or rather, with-the-clay.

It consists in the experience that the clay is communicating with you while you are working it. This experience is continuous with the unfolding process of shaping the clay. Crucially, the potter is experiencing with the clay, in the words of Falin , p. Master potters regularly describe making in terms that reveal an emotional understanding of the process, and tend to perceive making as intrinsically meaningful.

The experience of a dialogic rather than dominating relation between themselves and the clay underwrites their practical understanding of making.

The following statement of potter and teacher Susan Claysmith personal webpage serves to exemplify this:. I developed an interest in playing in the mud as a child and in my early teens discovered that working with clay was intensely more satisfying.

Clay is a superbly malleable medium for creativity; its inherent nature inspires an interactive dialogue which can guide the direction of the work. I begin with a general concept and as I become involved in the making, this dialogue takes the lead. Japanese potter Ken Matsuzaki describes a similar dialogic relation with the clay in an interview for the exhibition of his work at the Goldmark gallery :.

I just look at the clay, its condition, and then touch it and start throwing. I hear the voice of the clay, where it wants to go, what shape it would like to be. Whereas Susan Claysmith uses the combined techniques of hand building and wheel-work many potters have noticed the presence of a dialogic relation with the clay on the wheel in order to centre and shape it.

Centring the clay means that its mass and its outer edges are aligned and spin perfectly smooth without bumps or wobbles. It constitutes the first step in the throwing process, and begins with placing the clay on the wheel. As the wheel turns, the potter puts his or her cupped hands around the clay and then, using both arms and hands, centred firmly with his or her body, applies pressure to the spinning clay till it becomes a unified mass that can be pressed down or pulled up to a conical shape.

In the next step, the clay is pushed downward from the top, into a flattened half-sphere, then coned up and down a few times in order to homogenise the material. To open the centred mound of clay and create the beginning of the interior of the vessel, fingers or thumbs are slowly pushed down into the centre of the clay mound, leaving a sufficient amount of clay for the bottom. The resulting walls are then pulled apart, leaving a base that is then compressed with lateral sweeping of the fingers to prevent later cracking, and the walls then raised and carefully thinned.

Thereafter, any shape can be formed. Throwing is a delicate procedure and developing expertise usually requires decades of training. Potter, poet, and writer Mary Caroline Richards repeatedly inquired into the dialogical character of centring. Finally, conducting practice-based research about the meaning of making, Australian writer and ceramicist Sophia Alice Phillips , p.

As skill develops, centering becomes a kind of reverent physical and mental ritual that introduces the hand to clay and the maker to the making process. With head down, eyes closed, and senses focussed on the wet sliding sensation, the potter taps into a central force. With a few years of training and technical proficiency, feelings of respect and care but also confidence and recognition have gained in prominence and dominate, and in principle admit of maintaining the balanced dialogic relation to which master potters refer.

Furthermore, the sociocultural context influences experience. Large-scale production work often is mechanical and monotonic, containing little by way of dialogue, while studio pottery allows for variation and creativity and sometimes invites a playful approach to the clay cf. Soemantri , p. In spite of the varying conditions for pottery making, the dialogic conception of hand building and throwing has made its way into handbooks and consequently may be considered part of the received view.

The accompanying photographs show close-ups of hands grasping and working clay. Let us conclude the discussion of the third type of experience with clay.

What We Can Learn from Japanese Management

Because of his immense popularity during his lifetime and since, numerous sayings have been ascribed to Henry Ford. However, many of these quotes are difficult to properly verify or attribute. Work on collecting and authenticating Henry Ford quotations was begun at Ford Motor Company, possibly as early as the mids. Staff, interns, and volunteers of the Benson Ford Research Center at The Henry Ford have continued this work, resulting in the list below also available as a spreadsheet download. The list includes quotations that have been traced to a primary source or a reliable secondary source. Examples of reliable secondary sources would be a published interview with or other direct quotations of Henry Ford in newspapers contemporary to him, including but in no way limited to house organs such as the Ford Times and Ford News , or a book whose ghostwriting or collaboration was authorized by Henry Ford.

Audible Plus. Cancel anytime. Called "the sleeper hit of the publishing season" by The Boston Globe , Shop Class as Soulcraft became an instant best seller, attracting fans with its radical and timely reappraisal of the merits of skilled manual labor. On both economic and psychological grounds, author Matthew B. Crawford questions the educational imperative of turning everyone into a "knowledge worker," based on a misguided separation of thinking from doing. By: Matthew B.

Dialogue in the making: emotional engagement with materials

We investigate the dynamic relation between maker and material through the lens of pottery as illustrated by wheel throwing, claiming that the experience of dialogue signals an emotional involvement with clay. Drawing on the intimate relationship between movement and emotion, it promotes an open-ended manner of working and permits experiencing with the material, acting into its inherent possibilities. In conclusion, we suggest that dialogue, whether verbal or nonverbal, constitutes a primary means for making sense of the world at large, animate and inanimate.

Why We Make Things and Why It Matters

Why We Make Things and Why it Matters: The Education of a Craftsman

Produced in Cyprus. DES www. AHDR activities include research and dissemination of research findings; development of policy recommendations; enrichment of library and archives; organization of teacher training seminars, discussions, conferences; publication of educational materials; organization of on-site visits and walks; development of outreach tools; establishment of synergies between individuals and organizations at a local, European and international level. Historical Consciousness and Historical Learning: some results of my own empirical research Bodo von Borries. The occasion marked the opening of the Home for Cooperation, an educational and research centre born out of the ideas and efforts that first came into being when the AHDR was formed in April by an inter-communal group of history educators, historians, academics and activists from across the divide in Cyprus. Indeed, the buffer zone, for many years a physical, political and emotional reminder of the history which led to the current separation of the two communities of Cyprus, has since, through the Home for Cooperation, been transformed into an arena of dialogue, cooperation, and promise. In contrast to the omnipresent forces and symbols that point towards a seemingly foregone conclusion of enduring separation, the Home for Cooperation, by offering a space for fresh ideas, opportunities to communicate with others and develop diverse relationships, presents the possibility of forging a new kind of history.

A must-read for the craftsperson, artisan and artist. How does the making of objects shape our identities? How does creative work enrich our communities and society? What does the process of making things reveal to us about ourselves? Korn poignantly provides answers in this book that is for the artist, artisan, crafter, do-it-yourselfer inside us all.

Businessmen in the United States and Europe know Japanese industry as an important supplier, customer, and competitor. But they should also know it as a teacher. Three important sets of ideas we can learn from Japan are described in this article. They could have a far-reaching impact on the quality of our executive decision making, corporate planning, worker productivity, and management training. What are the most important concerns of top management? Almost any group of top executives in the United States or in many other Western nations would rank the following very high on the list:. In approaching these problem areas, Japanese managers—especially those in business—behave in a strikingly different fashion from U.

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Throughout this journey, Korn falls in and out of love, gets cancer and recovers, opens and closes up shop throughout the northeast, spends some time in Colorado, and then comes back again. Over the course of his life, Korn also develops powerful thoughts about what it means to make things, and why making things matters. As Korn writes, a craftsman not only develops the ability to make high quality products, but also develops the distinct ability to look closely, and notice complexity:. When I look at a piece of furniture from across a room, I see form, style, scale, context, and intended use. As I approach it, I distinguish material, joinery, and proportions. When I get close enough to touch it, I take in details such as hardware, textures, finish, edge treatments, wood grain, quality, and comfort.

Godine in October, Order on Amazon. Order a Signed Copy. News Highlights. We may be capable, competent individuals, yet find ourselves starved for avenues of engagement that provide more satisfying sustenance.

 - Нужен код. - Код? - сердито переспросила. Она посмотрела на панель управления. Под главной клавиатурой была еще одна, меньшего размера, с крошечными кнопками. На каждой - буква алфавита. Сьюзан повернулась к.  - Так скажите же мне .

Ему не хватило лишь нескольких сантиметров.

Скажи, Танкадо действительно умер от сердечного приступа или же его ликвидировал кто-то из ваших людей. - Ты совсем ослепла. Как ты не понимаешь, что я ко всему этому непричастен. Развяжи .

 Да вы все спятили. Это за четыреста-то баксов. Я сказал ей, что даю пятьдесят, но она хотела .

Why We Make Things and Why It Matters:

Она изучала записку. Хейл ее даже не подписал, просто напечатал свое имя внизу: Грег Хейл. Он все рассказал, нажал клавишу PRINT и застрелился. Хейл поклялся, что никогда больше не переступит порога тюрьмы, и сдержал слово, предпочтя смерть.

Ничего. Вроде бы на нижней ступеньке никого. Может, ему просто показалось. Какая разница, Стратмор никогда не решится выстрелить, пока он прикрыт Сьюзан.

Вошедший не обратил на его руку никакого внимания.

Джабба почувствовал, что она медлит с ответом, и снова нахмурился.  - Ты так не считаешь. - Отчет безукоризненный. - Выходит, по-твоему, Стратмор лжет. - Не в этом дело, - дипломатично ответила Мидж, понимая, что ступает на зыбкую почву.

Сьюзан Флетчер словно была рождена для тайных поисков в Интернете. Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя.

Падре Херрера, главный носитель чаши, с любопытством посмотрел на одну из скамей в центре, где начался непонятный переполох, но вообще-то это его мало занимало.

Кабинет номер 9А197. Директорские апартаменты. В этот субботний вечер в Коридоре красного дерева было пусто, все служащие давно разошлись по домам, чтобы предаться излюбленным развлечениям влиятельных людей. Хотя Бринкерхофф всегда мечтал о настоящей карьере в агентстве, он вынужден был довольствоваться положением личного помощника - бюрократическим тупиком, в который его загнала политическая крысиная возня.

 Северная Дакота. Разумеется, это кличка. - Да, но я на всякий случай заглянул в Интернет, запустив поиск по этим словам. Я не надеялся что-либо найти, но наткнулся на учетную запись абонента.  - Он выдержал паузу.

Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо. Она раскусила эту тактику разделяй и властвуй, тактику отставного морского пехотинца. Солги и столкни лбами своих врагов.


  1. Biorolake 06.06.2021 at 07:01

    Why We Make Things and Why It Matters: The Education of a Craftsman [Korn, Peter] on Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App.