God And Stephen Hawking Pdf
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- Stephen Hawking's Final Book Says There's 'No Possibility' of God in Our Universe
- 'There is no God,' Stephen Hawking writes in final book
- John C. Lennox God And Stephen Hawking ( 2011)
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Late physicist Stephen Hawking's final book was published Tuesday, and he doesn't fail to take on the big issues, including the existence of God. No one created the universe, and no one directs our fate. Hawking goes on to say that this realization made him decide belief in an afterlife was just "wishful thinking" and that "when we die, we return to dust. But Hawking, who died in March at age 76 , also saw a silver lining in what to some could be a bleak view.
Stephen Hawking's Final Book Says There's 'No Possibility' of God in Our Universe
Every great scientist in the century and a half since has been faced with this question, be it by personal restlessness or public demand. It takes a mind of rare courage and insight to address this abiding question without falling into the most pernicious trap of all — that of artificial compatibilism; to take a lucid stance without fright of offense, then to explain the basis of that stance thoughtfully and sensitively, systematically dismantling every reflexive argument against it.
That is what Stephen Hawking January 8, —March 14, does in his final book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions public library — a collection of ten enormous questions Hawking was asked regularly throughout his life, by children and elders, by entrepreneurs and political leaders, by men and women young and old attending his prolific lectures and public appearances, with answers drawn from his extensive personal archive of correspondence, notes, drafts, interviews, and essays. For centuries, it was believed that disabled people like me were living under a curse that was inflicted by God.
If you believe in science, like I do, you believe that there are certain laws that are always obeyed. If you like, you can say the laws are the work of God, but that is more a definition of God than a proof of his existence. The laws of nature are a description of how things actually work in the past, present and future.
In tennis, the ball always goes exactly where they say it will. And there are many other laws at work here too. They apply not just to the flight of a ball, but to the motion of a planet, and everything else in the universe. One could define God as the embodiment of the laws of nature.
However, this is not what most people would think of as God. They mean a human-like being, with whom one can have a personal relationship. When you look at the vast size of the universe, and how insignificant and accidental human life is in it, that seems most implausible.
My prediction is that we will know the mind of God by the end of this century. But even with the laws of nature conceded, Hawking recognizes that their existence still leaves room for religions to lay claim to the grandest question — how the universe and its laws began. He addresses the question both plainly and profoundly:.
Despite the complexity and variety of the universe, it turns out that to make one you need just three ingredients. So what are the three ingredients we need to cook up a universe? The first is matter — stuff that has mass. Matter is all around us, in the ground beneath our feet and out in space. Dust, rock, ice, liquids. Vast clouds of gas, massive spirals of stars, each containing billions of suns, stretching away for incredible distances.
The second thing you need is energy. Something we encounter every day. Look up at the Sun and you can feel it on your face: energy produced by a star ninety-three million miles away.
Energy permeates the universe, driving the processes that keep it a dynamic, endlessly changing place. So we have matter and we have energy.
The third thing we need to build a universe is space. Lots of space. Wherever we look we see space, more space and even more space. Stretching in all directions. We were told that you never get something for nothing. But now, after a lifetime of work, I think that actually you can get a whole universe for free. The great mystery at the heart of the Big Bang is to explain how an entire, fantastically enormous universe of space and energy can materialise out of nothing.
The secret lies in one of the strangest facts about our cosmos. To help you get your head around this weird but crucial concept, let me draw on a simple analogy. Imagine a man wants to build a hill on a flat piece of land. The hill will represent the universe. To make this hill he digs a hole in the ground and uses that soil to dig his hill. The stuff that was in the hole has now become the hill, so it all perfectly balances out.
This is the principle behind what happened at the beginning of the universe. When the Big Bang produced a massive amount of positive energy, it simultaneously produced the same amount of negative energy. In this way, the positive and the negative add up to zero, always. So where is all this negative energy today?
This may sound odd, but according to the laws of nature concerning gravity and motion — laws that are among the oldest in science — space itself is a vast store of negative energy. Enough to ensure that everything adds up to zero. The endless web of billions upon billions of galaxies, each pulling on each other by the force of gravity, acts like a giant storage device.
The universe is like an enormous battery storing negative energy. The positive side of things — the mass and energy we see today — is like the hill. The corresponding hole, or negative side of things, is spread throughout space.
So what does this mean in our quest to find out if there is a God? The universe is the ultimate free lunch. But on the subatomic stratum undergirding our physical reality, things work differently — particles pop up at random times in random places only to disappear again, governed by the laws of quantum mechanics, which seem downright mystical in their manifestation but are in fact discovered and calculable laws of the universe.
Hawking explains:. Since we know the universe itself was once very small — perhaps smaller than a proton — this means something quite remarkable. It means the universe itself, in all its mind-boggling vastness and complexity, could simply have popped into existence without violating the known laws of nature. From that moment on, vast amounts of energy were released as space itself expanded — a place to store all the negative energy needed to balance the books. But of course the critical question is raised again: did God create the quantum laws that allowed the Big Bang to occur?
In a nutshell, do we need a God to set it up so that the Big Bang could bang? I have no desire to offend anyone of faith, but I think science has a more compelling explanation than a divine creator. Once again he illustrates this assault on our basic common-sense intuitions with that supreme lever of understanding, the analogy:.
Imagine a river, flowing down a mountainside. What caused the river? Well, perhaps the rain that fell earlier in the mountains. But then, what caused the rain? A good answer would be the Sun, that shone down on the ocean and lifted water vapour up into the sky and made clouds. Okay, so what caused the Sun to shine?
Well, if we look inside we see the process known as fusion, in which hydrogen atoms join to form helium, releasing vast quantities of energy in the process.
So far so good. Where does the hydrogen come from? Answer: the Big Bang. The laws of nature itself tell us that not only could the universe have popped into existence without any assistance, like a proton, and have required nothing in terms of energy, but also that it is possible that nothing caused the Big Bang.
Hawking writes:. To understand this mind-boggling idea, consider a black hole floating in space. A typical black hole is a star so massive that it has collapsed in on itself. To see how, imagine a clock is being sucked into it. As the clock gets closer and closer to the black hole, it begins to get slower and slower. Time itself begins to slow down. Now imagine the clock as it enters the black hole — well, assuming of course that it could withstand the extreme gravitational forces— it would actually stop.
As we travel back in time towards the moment of the Big Bang, the universe gets smaller and smaller and smaller, until it finally comes to a point where the whole universe is a space so small that it is in effect a single infinitesimally small, infinitesimally dense black hole.
And just as with modern-day black holes, floating around in space, the laws of nature dictate something quite extraordinary. They tell us that here too time itself must come to a stop.
For me this means that there is no possibility of a creator, because there is no time for a creator to have existed in. No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation: there is probably no heaven and afterlife either. I think belief in an afterlife is just wishful thinking.
There is no reliable evidence for it, and it flies in the face of everything we know in science. I think that when we die we return to dust. We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that I am extremely grateful.
One day, I hope we will know the answers to all these questions. But there are other challenges, other big questions on the planet which must be answered, and these will also need a new generation who are interested and engaged, and have an understanding of science.
How will we feed an ever-growing population? Provide clean water, generate renewable energy, prevent and cure disease and slow down global climate change? I hope that science and technology will provide the answers to these questions, but it will take people, human beings with knowledge and understanding, to implement these solutions. Let us fight for every woman and every man to have the opportunity to live healthy, secure lives, full of opportunity and love. We are all time travellers, journeying together into the future.
But let us work together to make that future a place we want to visit. Be brave, be curious, be determined, overcome the odds.
'There is no God,' Stephen Hawking writes in final book
Don't have an account? He first published his no-boundary proposal in , concerning the expansion of the universe and the big bang, and he introduced his rather technical ideas at the Vatican in , where he also was able to meet and speak with Pope John Paul II. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us. All Rights Reserved.
In lively, layman's terms, Lennox guides us through the key points in Hawking's arguments--with clear explanations of the latest scientific and philosophical methods and theories--and demonstrates that, far from disproving a Creator God, they make His existence seem all the more probable. Make sure you hear both sides of the argument. John C. Lennox Author. Description The Grand Design , by eminent scientist Stephen Hawking, is the latest blockbusting contribution to the so-called New Atheist debate, and claims that the laws of physics themselves brought the universe into being, rather than God.
The book examines the history of scientific knowledge about the universe and explains eleven-dimensional M-theory. The authors of the book point out that a Unified Field Theory a theory, based on an early model of the universe , proposed by Albert Einstein and other physicists may not exist. It argues that invoking God is not necessary to explain the origins of the universe, and that the Big Bang is a consequence of the laws of physics alone. Published in the United States on September 7, , the book became the number one bestseller on Amazon. The book examines the history of scientific knowledge about the universe.
Hawking, A brief history of time, from the big bang to black holes, Bantam Books, New York,. 2. M. Sachs, On Hawking's “A Brief History of Time” and the.
John C. Lennox God And Stephen Hawking ( 2011)
Every great scientist in the century and a half since has been faced with this question, be it by personal restlessness or public demand. It takes a mind of rare courage and insight to address this abiding question without falling into the most pernicious trap of all — that of artificial compatibilism; to take a lucid stance without fright of offense, then to explain the basis of that stance thoughtfully and sensitively, systematically dismantling every reflexive argument against it. That is what Stephen Hawking January 8, —March 14, does in his final book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions public library — a collection of ten enormous questions Hawking was asked regularly throughout his life, by children and elders, by entrepreneurs and political leaders, by men and women young and old attending his prolific lectures and public appearances, with answers drawn from his extensive personal archive of correspondence, notes, drafts, interviews, and essays. For centuries, it was believed that disabled people like me were living under a curse that was inflicted by God. If you believe in science, like I do, you believe that there are certain laws that are always obeyed.
Though Hawking beat the odds for more than five decades, the scientist told the Guardian in that death was never far from his mind. I have so much I want to do first. An impersonal God. Hawking spoke more plainly about his thoughts on God in an interview with Spanish publication El Mundo. Though Hawking rejected the conventional notion of God or a creator, he fundamentally believed that the universe and life have meaning, according to the New York Times.
From his desk at Cambridge University and beyond, Stephen Hawking sent his mind spiraling into the deepest depths of black holes, radiating across the endless cosmos and swirling back billions of years to witness time's first breath.
Сьюзан бросилась к двери, моля Бога, чтобы Стратмор в этот миг включил резервное энергоснабжение и дверь открылась. Увы, ее руки уперлись в холодное стекло. Хейл с перепачканным кровью лицом быстро приближался к .
Он торопливо повернул выключатель. Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы.
На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась.
Она не клюнет на твою тактику разделяй и властвуй, - сказал Стратмор, подходя еще ближе. - Отпусти. - Чатрукьян был совсем мальчишка.
Сьюзан подняла. На плюшевом диване, закутавшись в махровый халат, грелся на солнце Дэвид и внимательно за ней наблюдал. Она протянула руку, поманив его к. - Без воска? - тихо спросила она, обнимая. - Без воска.
- Мы вместе спустимся. - Он поднял беретту. - Ты найдешь терминал Хейла, а я тебя прикрою. Сьюзан была отвратительна даже мысль об. - Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо.
Сьюзан не могла не восхититься умом Танкадо. Не открыв своего алгоритма, он доказал АНБ, что тот не поддается дешифровке. Стратмор протянул Сьюзан газетную вырезку. Это был перевод рекламного сообщения Никкей симбун, японского аналога Уолл-стрит джорнал, о том, что японский программист Энсей Танкадо открыл математическую формулу, с помощью которой можно создавать не поддающиеся взлому шифры. Формула называется Цифровая крепость, говорилось в заметке, и доступна для ознакомления в Интернете.
- Издать. - Некоторые идеи о протоколах вариативных фильтров и квадратичных остатках. - Стопроцентный бестселлер. Она засмеялась. - Сам удивишься.
У нас возник кризис, и я пытаюсь с ним справиться. - Он задумчиво посмотрел на. - Я являюсь заместителем оперативного директора агентства. - Усталая улыбка промелькнула на его лице. - И потом, я не .