Theory X And Theory Y Of Douglas Mcgregor Pdf

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theory x and theory y of douglas mcgregor pdf

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In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y.

He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator.

Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories

McGregor presented and explained the two theories in what is considered a classic work of management science, his book The Human Side of Enterprise. Theory X and Theory Y represent two basic assumptions about the human capacity for and relationship to work. Theory X hinges on the assumption that humans are inherently work-averse. The workplace is therefore authoritarian in nature, with top-down pressure serving as the primary mechanism of motivation. Under Theory X, employees are assumed to have little ambition and avoid responsibility, preferring a secure, base work environment.

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McGregor's Theory X/Y and Job Performance: A Multilevel, Multi-source Analysis

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.

These theories are based on the premise that management has to assemble all the factors of production, including human beings, to get the work done. McGregor believed that management can use either of the needs to motivate his employees, as grouped under theory X and theory Y. But however, the theory Y yields better results than the theory X, how? Theory X: Theory X relies on the authoritarian style of management, where the managers are required to give instructions and keep a close check on each employee. As it is assumed, the employees are not motivated, and they dislike working. This theory is based on the following assumptions:.


Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor). Douglas McGregor in his book, “​The Human Side of Enterprise” published in has examined theories on.


Theory X and Theory Y

 Ты мне не веришь. Мужчины начали спорить. - У нас вирус.

Поскольку Цифровая крепость - это японский код, никто никогда не заподозрит, что наше агентство имеет к нему отношение. Единственное, что нам нужно, - осуществить такую подмену. Сьюзан сочла его план безукоризненным.

 - Старался спрятать концы в воду, скрыть собственный просчет. А теперь не может отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ и включить резервное электропитание, потому что вирус заблокировал процессоры. Глаза Бринкерхоффа чуть не вылезли из орбит. Мидж и раньше были свойственны фантазии, но ведь не. Он попробовал ее успокоить: - Джабба, похоже, совсем не волнуется.

Его толстые пальцы принялись методично, сантиметр за сантиметром, ощупывать ее тело. Росио упала на него сверху и начала стонать и извиваться в поддельном экстазе.

Theory X vs Theory Y managers

 Танкадо посмеялся над нами, - сказал Стратмор. - Вы должны отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - напомнила Сьюзан. Стратмор отсутствующе смотрел на стену. - Коммандер. Выключите .

Theory X and Theory Y

 Но глаза… твои глаза, - сказал Беккер, чувствуя себя круглым дураком.  - Почему они такие красные. Она расхохоталась. - Я же сказала вам, что ревела навзрыд, опоздав на самолет.

 Я знал, что он меня не слушает. Вот так и рождаются слухи. Я сказал ему, что японец отдал свое кольцо - но не. Да я бы ничего и не взял у умирающего. О небо.

Один из лучших в городе. - Да, - произнес голос.

3 Comments

  1. Luke P. 25.05.2021 at 21:43

    This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures.

  2. Manfredo A. 28.05.2021 at 17:33

    To browse Academia.

  3. RГ©my L. 29.05.2021 at 05:07

    Work is changing.