Psychology Of Ethnicity And Ethnic Groups Pdf
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Ethnic conflict , a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents , and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters. Ethnic conflict is one of the major threats to international peace and security.
Metrics details. Racism has been linked with poor health in studies in the United States.
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry , language , history , society , culture , nation , religion , or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnicity can be an inherited status or based on the society within which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style , art or physical appearance.
A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However in present-day sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. The term "minority group" often occurs within the discourse of civil rights and collective rights , as members of minority groups are prone to differential treatment in the countries and societies in which they live.
Louis Wirth defined a minority group as "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination".
There is a controversy with the use of the word minority, as it has a generic and an academic usage.
The above criticism is based on the idea that a group can be considered minority even if it includes such a large number of people that it is numerically not a minority in society. The term national minority is often used to discuss minority groups in international and national politics. As these differences are usually perceived negatively by, this results in loss of social and political power for members of minority groups.
There is no legal definition of national minorities in international law, though protection of minority groups is outlined by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities. International criminal law can protect the rights of racial or ethnic minorities in a number of ways. In some places, subordinate ethnic groups may constitute a numerical majority, such as Blacks in South Africa under apartheid. There is inadequate evidence whether mass media targeting ethnic minorities are more effective in changing health behaviours such as smoking cessation, weight reduction and food habits when compared to mass media intended for the general population.
Also known as "castelike minorities," involuntary minorities are a term for people who were originally brought into any society against their will. Social capital helps children engage with different age groups that share a common goal. Immigrants take on minority status in their new country, usually in hopes of a better future economically, educationally, and politically than in their homeland.
Because of their focus on success, voluntary minorities are more likely to do better in school than other migrating minorities. Voluntary immigrants do not experience a sense of divided identity as much as involuntary minorities and are often rich in social capital because of their educational ambitions.
For example, men who have sex with men MSM , but do not identify as gay. In addition, the term gender minorities can include many types of gender variant people, such as intersex people, transgender people , or non-binary individuals. These inequalities include social discrimination and isolation, unequal access to healthcare, employment, and housing, and experience negative mental and physical health outcomes due to these experiences. Leading up to the Human Rights Act in the UK, a rise in the awareness relating to how people with disabilities were being treated began.
Many started to believe that they were being denied basic human rights. This act had a section that stated if authorities did not protect people with learning disabilities from others actions such as harm or neglect, then they could be prosecuted.
The disability rights movement has contributed to an understanding of people with disabilities as a minority or a coalition of minorities who are disadvantaged by society, not just as people who are disadvantaged by their impairments.
Advocates of disability rights emphasize the difference in physical or psychological functioning, rather than inferiority. For example, some people with autism argue for acceptance of neurodiversity , much as opponents of racism argue for acceptance of ethnic diversity. The deaf community is often regarded as a linguistic and cultural minority rather than a group with disabilities, and some deaf people do not see themselves as having a disability at all.
Rather, they are disadvantaged by technologies and social institutions that are designed to cater for the dominant group. See the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. People belonging to religious minorities have a faith which is different from that held by the majority. Most countries of the world have religious minorities.
However, in many countries this freedom is constricted. In Egypt , a new system of identity cards  requires all citizens to state their religion—and the only choices are Islam , Christianity , or Judaism See Egyptian identification card controversy. Another example is the case of decreasing population of minorities in Pakistan , where they are being forcefully converted or killed. In most societies, numbers of men and women are not equal.
Though women are not categorically a minority,  the status of women as a subordinate group has led to many social scientists to study them as a minority group. In the politics of some countries, a "minority" is an ethnic group recognized by law, and having specified rights. Speakers of a legally recognized minority language , for instance, might have the right to education or communication with the government in their mother tongue.
Countries with special provisions [ which? The various minority groups in a country are often not given equal treatment. Some groups are too small or indistinct to obtain minority protections. For example, a member of a particularly small ethnic group might be forced to check "Other" on a checklist of different backgrounds and so might receive fewer privileges than a member of a more defined group.
Many contemporary governments prefer to assume the people they rule all belong to the same nationality rather than separate ones based on ethnicity. The United States asks for race and ethnicity on its official census forms, which thus breaks up and organizes its population into sub-groups, primarily racial rather than national. Spain does not divide its nationals by ethnic group, although it does maintain an official notion of minority languages. Some especially significant or powerful minorities receive comprehensive protection and political representation.
For example, the former Yugoslav republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina recognizes the three constitutive nations, none of which constitutes a numerical majority see nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, other minorities such as Romani  and Jews , are officially labelled "foreign" and are excluded from many of these protections.
For example, they may be excluded from political positions, including the presidency. There is debate over recognizing minority groups and their privileges. One view  is that the application of special rights to minority groups may harm some countries, such as new states in Africa or Latin America not founded on the European nation-state model, since minority recognition may interfere with establishing a national identity.
It may hamper the integration of the minority into mainstream society, perhaps leading to separatism or supremacism. In Canada , some [ who? Others assert that minorities require specific protections to ensure that they are not marginalised: for example, bilingual education may be needed to allow linguistic minorities to fully integrate into the school system and compete equally in society.
In this view, rights for minorities strengthen the nation-building project, as members of minorities see their interests well served, and willingly accept the legitimacy of the nation and their integration not assimilation within it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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Main article: Minority religion. Society portal. Thousand Oaks, California. Essentials of sociology. Los Angeles. Louisiana Law Review. Archived from the original on Retrieved Gary Stanley Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Archived PDF from the original on European Journal of Women's Studies. The minority rights revolution. Cambridge, Mass. In Linton, Ralph ed. The Science of Man in the World Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press. The political scientist and law professor, Gad Barzilai, has offered a theoretical definition of non-ruling communities that conceptualizes groups that do not rule and are excluded from resources of political power.
Barzilai, G. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Feagin Cultural Diversity Glossary of Terms. University of Michigan Press. Romanian Journal of European Affairs. Archived from the original PDF on
Ethnic identity development
Sociology uses and critiques the concepts of race and ethnicity, connecting them to the idea of majority and minority groups and social structures of inequality, power, and stratification. The sociological perspective explores how race and ethnicity are socially constructed and how individuals identify with one or more. Research demonstrates how they are linked to social position and to political and policy debates about issues such as immigration, identity formation, and inter-group relations including racism. See more Research on Race and Ethnicity. A best seller for many years, this invaluable reference has been published by the ASA since and provides comprehensive information for academic administrators, advisers, faculty, students, and a host of others seeking information on social science departments in the U. Included are listings for graduate departments of sociology.
A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However in present-day sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. The term "minority group" often occurs within the discourse of civil rights and collective rights , as members of minority groups are prone to differential treatment in the countries and societies in which they live. Louis Wirth defined a minority group as "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination". There is a controversy with the use of the word minority, as it has a generic and an academic usage. The above criticism is based on the idea that a group can be considered minority even if it includes such a large number of people that it is numerically not a minority in society.
Ethnic identity development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, an ethnic group s. Ethnic identity is characterized as part of one's overarching self-concept and identification. It is distinct from the development of ethnic group identities. With some few exceptions, ethnic and racial identity development is associated positively with good psychological outcomes, psychosocial outcomes e. Development of ethnic identity begins during adolescence  but is described as a process of the construction of identity over time  due to a combination of experience and actions of the individual  and includes gaining knowledge and understanding of in-group s , as well as a sense of belonging to an ethnic group s. It is important to note that given the vastly different histories of various racial groups, particularly in the United States, that ethnic and racial identity development looks very different between different groups, especially when looking at minority e.
Drawing on self-construal theory, social identity theory, and value theory, we conducted a review of literature, in-depth interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, and expert reviews. Data were collected from three samples of Chinese ethnic minorities mainly college students. Results showed that the multidimensional constructs with six shared first-order factors Minority Ethnic Consciousness, Exploration, Involvement, Alienation, Inheritance, and Mastery demonstrated a better fit for the data and supported the conceptual framework. Both questionnaires demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and ecological validity.
Race and ethnicity are used to categorize certain sections of the population. In basic terms, race describes physical traits, and ethnicity refers to cultural identification. Race may also be identified as something you inherit while ethnicity is something you learn.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. I n Chapter 3 , we developed a two-part definition of racial discrimination: differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group and treatment on the basis of inadequately justified factors other than race that disadvantages a racial group differential effect. We focus our discussion on discrimination against disadvantaged racial minorities. Our definition encompasses both individual behaviors and institutional practices. To be able to measure the existence and extent of racial discrimination of a particular kind in a particular social or economic domain, it is necessary to have a theory or concept or model of how such discrimination might occur and what its effects might be. The theory or model, in turn, specifies the data that are needed to test the theory, appropriate methods for analyzing the data, and the assumptions that the data and analysis must satisfy in order to support a finding of discrimination.
Клянусь, что я тебя пальцем не трону. Сьюзан пыталась вырваться из его рук, и он понял, что его ждут новые проблемы. Если даже он каким-то образом откроет лифт и спустится на нем вместе со Сьюзан, она попытается вырваться, как только они окажутся на улице. Хейл хорошо знал, что этот лифт делает только одну остановку - на Подземном шоссе, недоступном для простых смертных лабиринте туннелей, по которым скрытно перемешается высокое начальство агентства. Он не имел ни малейшего желания затеряться в подвальных коридорах АНБ с сопротивляющейся изо всех сил заложницей. Это смертельная ловушка.
Но в них была только смерть. Смерть ее веры в. Любовь и честь были забыты. Мечта, которой он жил все эти годы, умерла.
Сьюзан вздохнула. Она чувствовала себя виноватой из-за того, что так резко говорила с коммандером. Ведь если кто и может справиться с возникшей опасностью, да еще без посторонней помощи, так это Тревор Стратмор. Он обладал сверхъестественной способностью одерживать верх над всеми, кто бросал ему вызов.
Правдоподобно, но маловероятно. - Зачем же ты убил Чатрукьяна? - бросила .