Structure Of Dna And Rna Pdf

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structure of dna and rna pdf

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We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience, read our Cookie Policy. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and Ribonucleic acid RNA are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life.

DNA, RNA, Protein, and Gene Expression

DNA is the genetic material found in all living organisms, ranging from single-celled bacteria to multicellular mammals. It is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts and mitochondria.

In prokaryotes, the DNA is not enclosed in a membranous envelope, but rather free-floating within the cytoplasm. The entire genetic content of a cell is known as its genome and the study of genomes is genomics. In eukaryotic cells, but not in prokaryotes, DNA forms a complex with histone proteins to form chromatin, the substance of eukaryotic chromosomes.

A chromosome may contain tens of thousands of genes. Many genes contain the information to make protein products; other genes code for RNA products. The other type of nucleic acid, RNA, is mostly involved in protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, the DNA molecules never leave the nucleus but instead use an intermediary to communicate with the rest of the cell.

Each nucleotide is made up of three components:. Each nitrogenous base in a nucleotide is attached to a sugar molecule, which is attached to one or more phosphate groups. The nitrogenous bases are organic molecules and are so named because they contain carbon and nitrogen.

They are bases because they contain an amino group that has the potential of binding an extra hydrogen, and thus, decreasing the hydrogen ion concentration in its environment, making it more basic. Adenine and guanine are classified as purines. The primary structure of a purine consists of two carbon-nitrogen rings. Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are classified as pyrimidines which have a single carbon-nitrogen ring as their primary structure. Each of these basic carbon-nitrogen rings has different functional groups attached to it.

In molecular biology shorthand, the nitrogenous bases are simply known by their symbols A, T, G, C, and U. The difference between the sugars is the presence of the hydroxyl group on the second carbon of the ribose and hydrogen on the second carbon of the deoxyribose. The phosphodiester linkage is not formed by simple dehydration reaction like the other linkages connecting monomers in macromolecules: its formation involves the removal of two phosphate groups.

A polynucleotide may have thousands of such phosphodiester linkages. Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources:. Skip to main content. Search for:. Learning Objective Describe the structure of nucleic acids and the types of molecules that contain them.

Both DNA and RNA are made from nucleotides, each containing a five-carbon sugar backbone, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. Show Sources Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. October 16, Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.

DNA, RNA, Protein, and Gene Expression

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Practice: DNA questions. Molecular structure of DNA. Antiparallel structure of DNA strands.

They carry the genetic blueprint of a cell in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and the instructions for the function of the cell in the form of ribonucleic acid RNA. Chromosomes are composed of DNA arranged into genes and other non-coding areas. The genes are the blueprints for making various molecules that cells need to function, including enzymes. The non-coding areas are critical for influencing when genes are activated or expressed and play diverse other roles in cell function, some of which are not yet understood. DNA is a relatively stable molecule that is tightly controlled by the host cell. It plays diverse, reactive functions in cells. When most genes are expressed, they are translated into messenger RNA mRNA molecules, which are then transcribed into proteins.


PDF | T he discovery that DNA is the prime genetic molecule, carrying all the hereditary information within chromosomes, immediately focused.


DNA structure and function

This page, looking at the structure of DNA, is the first in a sequence of pages leading on to how DNA replicates makes copies of itself, and then to how information stored in DNA is used to make protein molecules. This material is aimed at 16 - 18 year old chemistry students. If you are interested in this from a biological or biochemical point of view, you may find these pages a useful introduction before you get more information somewhere else. Chemistry students at UK A level or its various equivalents should not waste time on this.

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the genomic material in cells that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA, along with RNA and proteins, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for life. Within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes.

DNA is the genetic material found in all living organisms, ranging from single-celled bacteria to multicellular mammals. It is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts and mitochondria. In prokaryotes, the DNA is not enclosed in a membranous envelope, but rather free-floating within the cytoplasm. The entire genetic content of a cell is known as its genome and the study of genomes is genomics. In eukaryotic cells, but not in prokaryotes, DNA forms a complex with histone proteins to form chromatin, the substance of eukaryotic chromosomes.

DNA, RNA, Genes and Chromosomes

Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines. Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing.

DNA, RNA, Protein, and Gene Expression

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides , which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose , the polymer is RNA ribonucleic acid ; if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells. They play an especially important role in directing protein synthesis. Nucleic acids are found in abundance in all living things, where they create, encode, and then store information of every living cell of every life-form on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism.

 - Мидж полистала страницы.  - Ни вчера, ни. Бринкерхофф пожал плечами: - Быть может, ребята заняты сложной диагностикой.

What are the key differences between DNA and RNA?

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Nucleic acid

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 Проинструктировать. Относительно. - Относительно его поездки.

Он быстро нажал Да. ВЫ УВЕРЕНЫ.

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