Models And Metaphors In Language Teacher Training Tessa Woodward Pdf
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- A Course in Language Teaching Practice of Theory Cambridge Teacher Training and Development.pdf
- Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training : Loop Input and Other Strategies
- Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training: Loop Input and Other Strategies
A Course in Language Teaching Practice of Theory Cambridge Teacher Training and Development.pdf
A short summary of this paper. Planning Lessons and CoursesDesigning sequences of work for the language classroom To Alison Silver for her patience and humanity while editing the typescript.
To Jane Clifford for all her support. To Christine Frank for commenting so charitably on my first draft chapter. To the two anonymous readers who gave comments on a very early draft. To Phillip Burrows for his beautiful illustrations. To Ruth Carim for her meticulous proof-reading. What are our freedoms and constraints? Substitution classes Practical principles for working with substitution classes Introduction What do I mean by planning?
The title of this book is Planning Lessons and Courses so I'd like to define right away what I mean by it. By 'planning', I mean what most working teachers do when they say they're planning their lessons and courses. Thus I take planning to include the following: considering the students, thinking of the content, materials and activities that could go into a course or lesson, jotting these down, having a quiet ponder, cutting things out of magazines and anything else that you feel will help you to teach well and the students to learn a lot, i.
I do NOT mean the writing of pages of notes with headings such as 'Aims' and 'Anticipated problems' to be given in to an observer before they watch you teach. I also take it as given that plans are just plans. They're not legally binding. We don't have to stick to them come hell or high water. They are to help us shape the space, time and learning we share with students. We can depart from them or stick to them as we, the students and the circumstances seem to need.
What do I mean by a 'good' lesson or course? I've said above that planning is something we do to ensure our lessons and courses are good ones. But what is 'good'? When busy and tired, we often regard the variables of our classes such as the type of class, the prescribed syllabus, the schedule as constraints blocking the achievement of a 'good' lesson or course.
Then I could teach really well. We might hear laughter through a classroom wall or watch a teacher preparing bits of paper for an interesting activity and we may feel, 'Gosh! I wish I could do that! IntroductionIf we have the definition above, of a 'good' lesson or course being one that other people experience or that goes exactly to plan or one that is exactly what we've been told is good or one that's only achievable if we have hours of planning time available, then we are setting ourselves up for failure every time a class is bigger or smaller or worse resourced than it's 'supposed' to be, every time students act like real people and do something unpredictable.
We can look at the variables of the classroom differently though, regarding them instead as part of the description of our situation. So some things are not possible and other things are possible. I'll have to create what I can, given my situation. This is my setting and my design problem and this is how I'm going to set about solving it.
Granted, we will inevitably have absorbed notions of what 'good' is from outside ourselves, perhaps from our training, from our favourite teachers from school, or from colleagues, authors or conference presenters that we happen to like. But we need to ponder our own definitions of 'good' to make sure they're realistic and set us up for success.
I'll state my own criteria for a good language course or lesson now. We also know these things may keep shifting slightly as we go through the course. What are teachers' concerns about lesson and course planning? These are some of the things that are necessary for me to consider a course or lesson good, for me to consider my work good! Our concerns about preparing lessons and courses tend to differ according to the amount of experience we have.
A beginner teacher's concern: 'Planning takes too long''It just doesn't seem right! I stay up till one in the morning preparing for a 45 minute lesson the next day! I can't see how I can keep this up. What happens when I start a real job and have to teach six hours a day?
I mean I remembered when I started my first teaching job. I used to spend all evening planning lessons for the next day. Why does lesson preparation take inexperienced teachers so long?
I think it's partly because there are so many variables for a starter teacher to consider as they think about the time they will spend with a class.
How long have I got? Culture, a topic, study skills, listening, vocabulary? Or the next page of the textbook? How do I interest students and get them working together well and doing something worthwhile? I hate this page of the textbook. I want a picture of a thirsty woman but I can't find one.
My trainer has given me a model plan. I have to write in the timing but I have no idea how long things will take. On my training course I only did one or two separate ones. Do I really have the control to make these things happen? Is it OK to change my mind in class and do something I didn't plan? Will the students change things? Do I want to be one? Or does it mean being like my old, hated, maths teacher?
It's no wonder that beginner teachers wander round their homes making endless cups of tea, staring at books sightlessly, and tearing up sheets of paper. There are a lot of things to consider and to try to get right, all at the same time! An experienced teacher's concern: 'It's getting boring! I've done that lesson too many times.
Planning and teaching have got easier. They don't take up much mental space any more. Experienced teachers can switch onto 'auto-pilot', do things they have done many times before and use their energies in other parts of their lives such as bringing up children, learning fencing or falling in love again.
Auto-pilot is really useful. It can get you through times of fatigue, personal happiness or distress, but it can be boring for the pilot. It's good to be able to cut corners and have more time for yourself but it's not so good to succumb to the temptation of using old ideas and materials again and again.
Ways of getting better at planningAs I said above, I can remember how it felt to spend all evening preparing for one lesson, to stare at paragraphs of explanation in grammar books wondering what anomalous finites were and whether it would be useful for students to learn about them.
Here I am 20 years later and sometimes I still feel a bit the same! Now I'm reading about the grammar of speech and wondering if it would help me or my students to learn about it.
But one thing IS different now. I can choose how long to take over my planning. I can plan a lot of the next lesson by the time I've finished the present one.
I can plan a lesson in about ten minutes, jotting down a few notes on a piece of paper and things still seem to go all right. I can have an outline in my head that is designed to hand most things over to the students.
I can spend a long time planning a course or lesson and actually enjoy it! I'm not alone in this. One experienced colleague writes nothing down but says he does a lot of thinking in the bath in the morning. Another plans out loud to herself on the 45 minute car journey to work.
Ways of getting better at planningPersonally, I'm not one of those people who can 'go in with absolutely nothing and think on my feet'. But then I have met very few such people.
Even a colleague of mine who positively rants about the insanity of deciding on Friday night what will happen on Monday morning still admits that he doesn't like going in with absolutely nothing. Most experienced teachers can do that thinking a lot more easily than when they started their jobs. What's more they can do it before, during or after lessons.
We may not know how we got to be able to do this but most of us, looking back, can sense that a distance has been travelled. So what does happen in between the time when planning takes all night and makes you miserable and the time when you can do it easily and enjoyably while washing or driving or teaching? I'll suggest a number of ways this apparent magic might happen.
Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training : Loop Input and Other Strategies
Used interchangeably to describe the strategies which teachers are educated Applying Woodward's loop input to Designing In-Service Language Teacher practitioners are also different in terms of the methods of working. In Woodward's loop input model, the content aspect of training goes together with the process Models and metaphors in language teacher training: Loop input and other strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar. She has with the new input and experiences in teacher education programmes, as a result of Woodward, T.
Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training-Tessa Woodward Focusing on two Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an invaluable resource and reference manual for.
Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training: Loop Input and Other Strategies
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She is the author of many books and articles for language teachers and for teacher trainers. E-mail: tessaw hilderstone. Why I wrote the book Basic facts about the book An example teaching tip An example practical activity Marketing speak: Thinking in EFL classes… About how long it takes to write a book And the review is..? In conference presentations these days, in articles in professional magazines, on internet web sites, in English for Academic Purposes EAP settings, and also in some primary, secondary and tertiary syllabuses recently, there has been an increased interest in teaching thinking skills.
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“Thinking in the EFL Class”: an Auto Review by Tessa Woodward
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Тебе он всегда рад. Сьюзан заставила себя промолчать. Хейл хмыкнул себе под нос и убрал упаковку тофу. Затем взял бутылку оливкового масла и прямо из горлышка отпил несколько глотков. Он считал себя большим знатоком всего, что способствовало укреплению здоровья, и утверждал, что оливковое масло очищает кишечник. Он вечно навязывал что-то коллегам, например морковный сок, и убеждал их, что нет ничего важнее безукоризненного состояния кишечника. Хейл поставил масло на место и направился к своему компьютеру, располагавшемуся прямо напротив рабочего места Сьюзан.
Да. После того как я вскрыл алгоритм Попрыгунчика, он написал мне, что мы с ним братья по борьбе за неприкосновенность частной переписки. Сьюзан не могла поверить своим ушам. Хейл лично знаком с Танкадо. И снова постаралась держаться с подчеркнутым безразличием. - Он поздравил меня с обнаружением черного хода в Попрыгунчике, - продолжал Хейл. - И назвал это победой в борьбе за личные права граждан всего мира.
Беккер попридержал его еще минутку, потом отпустил. Затем, не сводя с него глаз, нагнулся, поднял бутылки и поставил их на стол. - Ну, доволен.
Вся ложь Танкадо о невскрываемом алгоритме… обещание выставить его на аукцион - все это было игрой, мистификацией. Танкадо спровоцировал АНБ на отслеживание его электронной почты, заставил поверить, что у него есть партнер, заставил скачать очень опасный файл. - Линейная мутация… - еле выдавил Стратмор. - Я знаю.
Какого черта здесь нужно Чатрукьяну? - недовольно поинтересовался Стратмор. - Сегодня не его дежурство.