Inflammatory Processes In Muscle Injury And Repair Pdf
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- Neutrophils in tissue injury and repair
- Muscle injuries and strategies for improving their repair
Metrics details. Satellite cells are tissue resident muscle stem cells required for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repair through replacement of damaged myofibers.
Baoge, E. Van Den Steen, S. Rimbaut, N.
Neutrophils in tissue injury and repair
Physical exercise, inflammatory process and adaptive condition: an overview. State University of Campinas. Institute of Biology. Department of Biochemistry Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry. Campinas, SP.
Inflammation from Latin : inflammatio is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens , damaged cells, or irritants,  and is a protective response involving immune cells , blood vessels , and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. The five classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function Latin calor , dolor , rubor , tumor , and functio laesa. In contrast, chronic inflammation is associated with various diseases, such as hay fever , periodontal disease , atherosclerosis , and osteoarthritis. Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes especially granulocytes from the blood into the injured tissues.
After skeletal muscle injury, it undergoes successive stages of degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. The mainstream view is that apoptosis and regeneration occur simultaneously in muscle tissue and form a dynamic equilibrium situation. When the tissues are stimulated by certain stimuli, such as drugs, physical injuries, autoimmune disorders, and so on, the balance will be broken, resulting in muscle atrophy or hypertrophy 1. Acute injury of skeletal muscle will cause fiber breakage and tearing of blood vessels. Inflammatory factors can enter the damaged tissue arbitrarily and trigger the early inflammatory response. Subsequently, the immune cells awaken and release a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
As one of the first defenders of innate immune response, neutrophils make a rapid and robust response against infection or harmful agents. While traditionally regarded as suicidal killers that cause collateral tissue damage, recent findings on neutrophil extracellular trap formation, heterogeneity and plasticity and novel reparative functions have expanded our understanding of their diverse roles in health and disease. This review summarizes our current understanding of neutrophil-associated tissue injury, highlighting the emerging roles of neutrophil extracellular traps. This review will also focus on scrutinizing the roles of neutrophils in tissue repair and regeneration and will examine data on unexpected aspects of involvement of neutrophils in regulating normal tissue homeostasis. Neutrophils are the predominant immune cell in human blood, where they patrol and protect the host from pathogens and other harmful reagents Kolaczkowska and Kubes During infection, neutrophils are mostly viewed as playing a beneficial role to the host, as neutropenic patients are at high risk for mortality from infection; although these robust effector functions may also lead to tissue damage. In cases where the inflammatory process is generated by injury itself, which is also known as sterile inflammation, it becomes more controversial as to whether neutrophils themselves have any beneficial effects that may contribute to repair the parenchyma or vasculature.
Satellite cells are tissue resident muscle stem cells required for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repair through replacement of damaged myofibers. Muscle regeneration is coordinated through different mechanisms, which imply cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as extracellular secreted factors. Cellular dynamics during muscle regeneration are highly complex. Immune, fibrotic, vascular and myogenic cells appear with distinct temporal and spatial kinetics after muscle injury. Three main phases have been identified in the process of muscle regeneration; a destruction phase with the initial inflammatory response, a regeneration phase with activation and proliferation of satellite cells and a remodeling phase with maturation of the regenerated myofibers. Whereas relatively minor muscle injuries, such as strains, heal spontaneously, severe muscle injuries form fibrotic tissue that impairs muscle function and lead to muscle contracture and chronic pain. Current therapeutic approaches have limited effectiveness and optimal strategies for such lesions are not known yet.
Modified muscle use or injury can produce a stereotypic inflammatory response in which neutrophils rapidly invade, followed by macrophages.
Muscle injuries and strategies for improving their repair
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