Water And Sanitation In Kenya Pdf

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In West Pokot, Mandera, Garissa, Tana River, Busia and Kisumu County, there are about 5, displaced people due to flooding during the March to May long rains season and indeed of safe water supply and other services. Members of the public are less cautious of COVID infections with increasing risk of new rising infections.

Toolkit for urban public sanitation projects in Kenya (Version 1.0)

Amidst climate change, coastal cities in Africa will face serious water and sanitation problems owing to the predicted flooding of coastal lands and saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers. For cities such as Mombasa, the problems will be further compounded by high prevalence of informal economies and settlements superimposed on western style governance systems. Yet, right from colonisation to the present day, the water supply and sewage systems have been characterised by a series of inequalities in access.

This review paper, discusses the water and sanitation backlogs in the coastal city of Mombasa, tracing them from the colonial times to the post-colonial period. Against this background, we overview the current situation of the water and sanitation sector in the city and discuss possible sustainable interventions.

We argue that any analysis of the water and sanitation challenges must consider the motive of the development of the infrastructure during the colonial times. We conclude that sustainable water and sanitation services are likely to remain a mirage unless the issues of funding, cost recovery, data availability and overall governance are fully addressed. A good understanding of both historical inadequacies and current investments would help in designing sustainable interventions going forward.

African cities have the world's fastest population doubling time. The growth in population increases demand for services, not least the demand for the provision of water and a working sewage system, which are central to proper functioning of every city. Yet, the infrastructure for the supply of water and the treatment of sewage and wastewater remains inadequate across African cities.

It is no wonder that the continent accounts for the bulk of the , deaths, each year, arising from contaminated or unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene Mannak, Climate change and potential outbreak of pandemics will add uncertainty to the already precarious future for the water and sanitation service infrastructure.

Solving future water and sanitation challenges in Africa will remain a priority as the urban population is expected to triple by Hajjar, Most water and sanitation utilities continue to operate aging infrastructure aimed at supplying the city as it once was. The main drawback to service provision is underfunding for capital expenditure. To meet sustainable development Goal 6 by , African cities will need to invest massively in water and sanitation sectors.

Currently, African countries allocate no more than 0. An additional challenge is the increasing urbanisation, coupled with weak institutional capacity to expand and maintain water infrastructure, which affects the reliability and quality of water supply United Nations, While challenges in service provision remain uncontested at the macro-level, these may differ in magnitude across regions, cities, user types and so on, within the same country.

This, coupled with differences in the levels of development, governance, hydrology and proximity to water sources, create the need to undertake a thorough analysis of the water and sanitation challenges in specific regional, urban or rural areas. For example, while both inland and coastal cities experience water and sanitation challenges, amidst climate change, the potential for coastal areas to subside due to heavy settlement, changing storm intensities and frequencies, risk of flooding, failure of defences, infiltration and inflow of salt water into the water and sanitation infrastructural elements have the potential to compound these challenges see Arnell et al.

Located on the edge of the Indian Ocean, Mombasa is one of the African cities where two thirds of low-income residents have no access to safe and affordable water, and just over half use an improved sanitation facility WSUP, undated.

Home to 1. It is not only Kenya's second largest city after Nairobi, but is also one of the 47 counties, which are geographical units of devolved governments. Being a port city, it plays a significant role in the economies of Kenya and other neighbouring landlocked countries, including Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan.

The combination of lack of technical skills, political will and resource allocation makes it difficult to meet the water supply deficits and to expand sewage coverage to all city residents.

These challenges have defied the passage of time, being rooted in the pre-independence design, installation and operation of the infrastructure and persisting right through Kenya's independence to the present time.

Considering the population and the needs of the harbour and the tourism industry, the demand for water and sanitation services is, and has always been very high. The available information on the water and sanitation situation in Mombasa is unanimous in describing the challenges faced by this sector. However, there is a dearth of published literature, with much of the information found in grey literature, namely, government documents and World Bank reports.

The information is fragmented, and there is lack of analysis on how the water and sanitation challenges have come about, and how they can be sustainably addressed, given the city's importance to the economies of Kenya's and the surrounding region. A thorough understanding of the issues relating to water and sanitation in Mombasa, from as far back as pre-independence times to the present day, would help address the systemic impediments to progress. Examining past and current factors such as funding policies, effectiveness of interventions and approaches to service delivery, would inform decision-makers to rethink broader institutional policy frameworks that would, among other things, accelerate sustainable progress towards achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 SDG:6 ; that is, equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation for all see, United Nations, In view of the above, this review paper evaluates the water and sanitation services in Mombasa from the colonial to postcolonial periods.

It further draws from past experiences and uses insights from best practices to discuss sustainable strategies for water and sanitation service provision in the city. The thesis of the review is that water and sanitation challenges were bred during colonialism, sustained in the post-colonial times and continues to present as organised chaos to date. Hence, to discuss the current challenges of water and sanitation in Mombasa without reference to the motive of the development of the infrastructure during the colonial times is to make a conceptual mistake.

It is not our claim that the challenges of the contemporary water and sanitation infrastructure and services are wholly attributable to the inherited inventory. Instead, we trace the current backlogs to historical fundamentals which informed the development of the water and sanitation infrastructure during colonial times. We argue that these historical fundamentals have neither been challenged nor have efforts been made to robustly address them in the post-colonial period.

Examining the water and sanitation infrastructure development and services ab initio would help in understanding the nature, scale and possible solutions to the present challenges.

Reference to both issues of historical inadequacies and current investments in the physical environment would in turn enhance our understanding of the issues of sustainability today. This review paper adopts a descriptive qualitative meta-analysis in the review of relevant literature. We confined our searches to Scorpus and google. Using a line argument technique, we identified different aspects of the literature on water and sanitation services in cities, in order to come up with new interpretations.

Complementary information was obtained through direct observation of water and sanitation services in the city, in an exercise consistent with piloted ground truthing. The findings of multiple qualitative information on water and sanitation has the benefit of providing insights into the reasons why interventions have succeeded or failed to succeed Atkins, Lewin, Smith, et al. Hence, the review could inform the implementation of interventions and programmes on water and sanitation in the city county of Mombasa.

It is also not based on the liberal theorists' romanticised view that the African continent would have been worse off without colonialism see Bauer, ; Gandy, Rather than concern ourselves with the worldviews expressed by these two theories, we adopted a pragmatic critical meta-analysis of the relevant literature on colonial experiences with the water and sanitation service provision in the city.

Mombasa has a very long history of settlement. By the time of British arrival in the east coast of Africa, a town of some size had stood on the island for hundreds of years Wills, The construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway saw Mombasa became the principal port of the region, servicing the upcountry areas of the British East Africa Wills, The effect of this on the local demand for water was quite dramatic in a city which had long relied on wells drawing on the coral rock of the island.

While water from the wells was quite enough for a pre-colonial population which varied between 10,—19, people, it was insufficient to cater for the increasing commercial and industrial demands associated with the railway line and the shipping activities, all of which were spearheaded by the British through IBEA. The need to explore alternative sources of water was captured in a report by a committee formed in to look into the water problem in Mombasa.

Earlier in , a scheme to develop a deep-water pier at Mombasa's Kilindini harbour had been shelved due to the absence of a good supply of water Minutes of a Meeting of Mombasa Water Committee, Alternative sources of water were necessary, not only to cater for commercial and industrial uses, but also because water from the wells was not considered safe. The quality of the water was so poor that it was reported to have damaged locomotive engines Cribb, However, as Nilsson asserts when writing about the water supply situation in Kampala, while the development of the water infrastructure was mainly justified on grounds of commercial and industrial interests, it was also driven by the colonialists quest for European-style modernisation to which water and sanitation systems was central.

Consequently, the project required a large and steady supply of manual labour. The local population defied all efforts to recruit them for contract wage labour for two main reasons. First, they had been used to alternative means of earning cash through their involvement in the Indian Ocean networks of capital, started way back before British rule, and secondly, it was a means of undermining colonial control.

This led to the use of coercive force whereby local administrators recruited people to work on the pipeline by force. While the discussion on forced labour is beyond the scope of this paper, relevantly, this historical factor continues to influence the city officials' attitudes towards working in the water and sanitation sector to-date.

During our meeting with the officials from the department of Water, Sanitation and Natural Resources and Mombasa Water and Sewerage Company MOWASCO , we were informed of how officers who are moved to the department view their transfer as a form of punishment or a demotion.

This is especially the case if the said officers are allocated sanitation management duties. Despite initial setbacks, the pipeline reached the island around and by work had begun on the networks for the supply of pipes around the island, with water flowing from the domestic customer's taps in Wills, Furthermore, any technological consideration in developing the infrastructure was based on European practices of modernity, with little regard for local peculiarities.

Both the water supply and sewage systems were characterised by a series of inequalities in access, as colonial investment decisions were mostly driven by metropolitan capitalism concerns and interests. Racism was combined with economic interests to undermine efficiency of water and sanitation infrastructure as it was not in the best interest of the British to supply the locals with clean water and sewage systems.

Access to services was skewed towards the master and any benefits which accrued to the residents were unintended. However, Mazrui explains that the British used pyramidal racial structure in important economic, social and political domains.

While the structure disadvantaged every colonial subject, it privileged Kenyans of Indian descent over other non-European Kenyans living in Mombasa. The dual economy, as explained by Palmer and Parsons , and the pyramidal racial structure used in the provision of services were captured in a letter written by C. The letter, which was addressed to the then Town Clerk stated that the municipal authority was complicit in the creation of urban economy whereby Arab traders were advantaged over Africans.

It accused the council of standing by and watching the suffering of the Africans with great negligence Smart, The letter pointed to the government's hypocrisy in how it demanded rigid sanitary requirements and charged high licensing fees while also having African vendors and hawkers operate in quite insanitary conditions at the municipal markets and canteens. In conclusion the scathing letter criticized the way Mombasa racialized class structure infused municipal politics Ibid. Colonial racism paved the way for post-colonial classism whereby poor people living in the informal settlements are disproportionally affected by the water and sanitation backlogs.

The end of colonialism bequeathed to colonies huge inequalities in service delivery. After Kenya attained her independence in , it was business as usual in water and sanitation service provision in Mombasa. The colonial legacy of discrimination in the provision of the water services continued to linger. With time, the pyramidal racist structure in the provision of services was replaced by class discrimination which continued to legitimise social inequalities through failure to address lack of access to poor informal settlements.

Successive national and Mombasa city authorities have directed no efforts in innovating and adapting the inherited colonial technological paradigms to better suit local and current social-economic contexts. Instead, they have continued to use the inherited large-scale systems. The dual economy phenomenon still persists, with old norms being preserved, and increasing informality leading to less and less access to water and sanitation services to the urban poor.

The water and sanitation backlog underpin a growing disjuncture between the city as strategic international and regional hub and the dilapidated state of its water and sanitation infrastructure. Increased population and economic activities have changed the scale and scope of demand for these services, at one time bankrupting, the National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation NWCPC World Bank, then Kenya's premier peak body responsible for the provision, management and regulation of water prior to reforms.

Since independence in , there have been promises, declaration and vision statements to provide water for all. Despite efforts and declarations to improve services, these have not kept up with population growth and urbanisation. Thompson, Porras, Katui-Katua, Mujwahuzi, and Tumwine report that water service levels from large scale systems in East African cities, including Mombasa, had declined considerably between s and the end of s.

An inherent feature of large-scale water and sewage systems is a certain amount of resistance to change inertia by decision makers. Consequently, the range of technical and policy options for today's decision makers is strongly influenced by decisions made earlier in time see Nilsson, The National Water Master Plan aimed at ensuring the availability of portable water at reasonable distances to all households by the year However, even this water master plan did not live to its promise.

Later, the government realised that due to funding shortfalls, it could not deliver water to all Kenyans by the year without involving other actors. The water and sanitation backlog in Mombasa continue to provide some of the most striking manifestations of the city's worsening infrastructure.

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

This toolkit contains the complete set of tools e. Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Project Evalution Chapter 6. A tool can be an application form, a publication, a guideline, a poster, a checklist, a contract, a drawing or a manual. Some tools guide you through the process of designing and implementing project activities.

Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of households was used. There is need to improve the situation by improving and installing basic infrastructure including water, sanitation, and solid waste collection. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.

Water supply and sanitation in Kenya is characterised by low levels of access to water and sanitation , in particular in urban slums and in rural areas , as well as poor service quality in the form of intermittent water supply. The Kenyan water sector underwent far-reaching reforms through the Water Act No. Previously service provision had been the responsibility of a single National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation as well as of a few local utilities established since The Act also created a national regulatory board that carries out performance benchmarking and is in charge of approving SPAs and tariff adjustments. The Ministry of Water and Irrigation remains in charge of policies for water supply, while the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation is in charge of policies for sanitation. Based on the unit cost of production, the nationwide losses due to non-revenue water in were estimated at 5.


If rates of progress on water supply and sanitation coverage are not accelerated, sector targets in Kenya will be missed in both rural and urban areas.


Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

Amidst climate change, coastal cities in Africa will face serious water and sanitation problems owing to the predicted flooding of coastal lands and saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers. For cities such as Mombasa, the problems will be further compounded by high prevalence of informal economies and settlements superimposed on western style governance systems. Yet, right from colonisation to the present day, the water supply and sewage systems have been characterised by a series of inequalities in access.

Toolkit for urban public sanitation projects in Kenya (Version 1.0)

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

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PDF | Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential.


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