Technological Advancements And Its Impact On Humanity Pdf
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People are more connected than ever, thanks in large part to rapid advancements in technology. While some forms of technology may have made positive changes in the world, there is evidence for the negative effects of technology and its overuse, as well.
- Negative effects of technology: What to know
- Technology and Human Vulnerability
- Technological Influence on Society
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Negative effects of technology: What to know
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A dvances in science and technology drive the evolution of the weather and climate information system. Scientific, operational, and, increasingly, business requirements determine what observations to make, how the information should be analyzed, and what products to create. The scientific understanding generated by developing and using these data and products, together with improvements in instrumentation and computation, lead to a new set of requirements.
The new capabilities that emerge from this evolving system can change what the sectors are doing or want to do—sometimes dramatically—and thus directly affect public, private, and academic partnerships. Despite sharp declines in the telecommunications industry and Internet start-up companies, new technologies and products continue to be introduced at a rapid rate.
This chapter reviews scientific and technological changes in the weather and climate information system that have the potential to affect partnerships.
The committee focuses on how the evolution of technology might alter the balance between the sectors, rather than on specific technologies, which have been the subject of numerous reports. Technologies such as broadband, the Internet, embedded networked systems, weather satellite systems, and modeling are described in the following reports: National Research.
The history of technology shows that changes come in two main forms: those that can be reasonably well predicted and those that cannot. There are many computer and communications technologies that may have an impact on both the weather enterprise and the relationships among the partners. Examples include modeling, networking technologies, visualization, human-computer interfaces, and technologies for storing, structuring, and exchanging data. This report focuses on technologies that were deemed to have particular impact on partnerships.
Predictable technological changes will have somewhat predictable impacts on public, private, and academic partnerships. However, there will surely be surprises as well, which will place unexpected stresses on existing partnerships and create new opportunities for cooperation. In either case, the weather and climate services offered in or will likely be very different from the services offered today. Fifty years ago weather observations were made with in situ instruments or by eye or ear and plotted by hand on paper weather maps Table 1.
Observations were analyzed subjectively, and forecasts were based largely on the empirical skill of government forecasters. Weather and cli-. Technological surprises include the World Wide Web and the pervasive presence of the Internet in our lives, neither of which was foreseen a decade ago. BOX 5. An NRC report A Vision for the National Weather Service: Road Map for the Future a looked ahead to the year to much improved weather and climate forecasts and how information derived from these forecasts would be increasingly valuable to society.
The report envisions weather forecasts approaching the limits of atmospheric predictability about two weeks and new forecasts of chemical and space weather, hydrologic parameters and other environmental parameters.
It describes the use of ensemble forecasts that project nearly all possible future states of weather and climate and how these ensembles can be used in a probabilistic way by a variety of users.
It asserts that as the accuracy improves and measures of uncertainty are better defined, the economic value of weather and climate information will increase rapidly as more and more ways are found or created to use information profitably.
New markets, such as the weather derivatives market, will be created. Some markets will be strengthened e. Other markets may diminish, such as the role of human forecasters in adding value to numerical forecasts beyond one day or in preparing graphical depictions of traditional weather forecasts. The weather information system was run almost entirely by the National Weather Service NWS , with academia focused on basic research and the private sector just beginning to emerge.
Advances in technology, including remote sensing from satellites, radars, and in situ sensors; computers; information and communication technologies; and numerical modeling, coupled with increased understanding derived from investments in research, have produced a weather and climate information system in the United States that is at the cutting edge of science and technology.
As scientific understanding and computational capabilities improved throughout the second half of the twentieth century, private companies found opportunities to use government data to create value-added products for clients. However, as little as 10 years ago , federal government agencies still collected nearly all of the data and developed and ran the.
Today the situation is radically different. Declining instrument costs have permitted state and local government agencies, universities, and private companies to deploy Doppler radars and arrays of in situ instruments. Increased computing power 4 and bandwidth at rapidly dropping prices have enabled a substantial number of private companies and universities to run their own models or models developed by others.
The development of new communications technologies e. Indeed, advances in networking have transformed the weather and climate enterprise Box 5. Finally, the widespread availability of visualization tools has made it easier for all sectors to display and better communicate weather information. These changes have made it possible for each of the sectors to provide services that were only recently in the domain of another sector e. Studying these different phenomena and developing products and tools to mitigate their impacts requires data of different spatial coverage and resolution, collected from a mixture of satellite instruments, local arrays, and independent stations.
Satellite instruments provide high spatial and temporal resolution global coverage. The satellite observations are complemented by in situ measurements from radiosondes, aircraft, and surface stations. Doppler radars track and monitor small-scale severe storms and precipitation systems.
Most instruments collect data continuously, but some are event driven. Examples include the lightning detection network, which is triggered by cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, and reconnaissance aircraft that fly into hurricanes.
Other meteorological instruments can be adjusted to collect higher-resolution data for specific events—for example, geostationary satellites and radars, which can scan at a higher rate over areas of severe weather, thereby providing greater temporal resolution on the order of minutes.
The computers running global prediction models are 20 times more powerful than those a decade ago. Cook, , Ahead of the weather, U. News and World Report , April 29, p. Networking is having an increasing impact on all aspects of the weather and climate enterprise. Advances in network technologies have enabled automated data collection, as well as remote access to specialized computing servers that support models and forecasting.
Networking has also dramatically increased the speed at which weather products are available and the number of users they reach. However, networking is not monolithic. The networking required for remote sensors and data collection may be wireless and self-organizing and may or may not have to be high bandwidth.
Distributed and remote modeling and forecasting require extremely high bandwidth reliable networks to specific locations. However, excessively high or reliable bandwidths are not required for disseminating weather forecasts, watches, warnings, advisories, and other information products to the public.
The advances in networking rely to a large extent on improvements to underlying technologies. Terrestrial and satellite radio technologies provide access to instruments and enable operation in conjunction with ad hoc, self-organizing networks, a in which the sensors on the net may also play a role in the infrastructure of the network itself as routers and forwarders of traffic.
First, as computer prices decline, home and office computers are becoming increasingly pervasive. The widespread availability of personal computers made the provision of network services possible, but it was the combination of e-mail, the World Wide Web, and web browsers that made them economically viable.
Today, the majority of office workers in the United States have networked workstations on their desks. Second, the rise in the wireless cellular telephone and other wireless technologies is enabling people to stay connected while mobile. The combination of computer networks and wireless technologies dramatically increases the avenues for broad, rapid dissemination of urgently important weather information.
An example is the micron-sized sensors under development that would be dispersed from aircraft to gather and relay real-time data for meteorological and military purposes. See S. The effectiveness of such sensors depends on the power and infrastructure of the network. Every time an antenna is turned on for sending or receiving, it uses significant amounts of power compared with the power required to make measurements or perform simple computations like data compression.
The relationship between transmission distance and power is exponential. For an untethered device dependent on irreplaceable battery power, the trade-off is clear—shorter and less frequent communication yields a longer life span of measurements. If one is placing devices in remote locations, there is great advantage to making every device a sensor, even if part of its responsibility is to relay information from neighboring sensors toward a concentration point. Such a system must be organized to both conserve power effectively and deliver the data, by turning nodes on and off as required.
In such a system, the data will follow different routes at different times and work around nodes whose power has been completely depleted. Optical networking holds the promise of providing both extremely low latency speed of light and high bandwidth because many wavelengths can occupy the same fiber without interference. Left : Improved resolution provided by upgraded radars. Right : The number and frequency of meteorological observations will increase over the next decade.
Although most of this increase will come from new satellites, it also reflects expansions planned for the Cooperative Observer Network and other surface observational networks, additional aircraft reports, and additional radar data.
This mixture of observing approaches is also a cost-effective way of meeting the needs of the diverse weather and climate communities. New observing systems currently being considered are intended to provide better accuracy, resolution, and coverage Figure 5.
The latter is important not only for weather prediction but also for preserving the continuity of the climate record. Sensors that can be deployed on aircraft or on the ground are becoming cheaper, smaller, and more powerful, primarily because of the continued decrease in cost and increase in capability of semiconductors.
As a result, universities, state governments, and the private sector can increasingly afford to purchase, install, and maintain low-cost sensors for purposes that would not have been considered in the past e. The growth of private networks raises both scientific and policy issues. Most data collected by private companies and some data collected by state and local government agencies are proprietary see Chapter 4.
Since proprietary data and the methods by which they were collected cannot be scrutinized, it is difficult to determine whether the sensors were deployed in a scientifically rigorous manner e. This uncertainty limits the value of proprietary data to the weather and climate enterprise. A start-up company, Airborne Research Associates, has developed a network of lightning sensors that capture all flashes, including cloud to cloud, not just cloud to ground, as is currently provided by Vaisala-Global Atmospherics, Inc.
Presentation to the committee by D. The atmosphere-ocean-land system is complex and yields its secrets slowly. Models for understanding the system and for generating forecasts are only as good as the level of scientific knowledge, quality and coverage of input data, and computer-processing capabilities permit.
Numerical models incorporate the dynamical equations governing the changing state of the atmosphere and oceans and fill in the spatial and temporal gaps in the global observing system see Chapter 2 for an overview of weather and climate models.
They will continue to do so as very high resolution data and algorithms describing processes such as cloud interactions and land-surface and boundary-layer physics are incorporated. Advances in understanding and improved data coverage place increasing demands on processing capabilities. Indeed, one of the primary constraints on the accuracy and quality of forecasts is the computational effort required 1 to process effectively the large volume of observations that are collected and 2 to run numerical weather prediction models with high spatial resolution.
For example, a recent NRC report found that ensemble models require 20 Gflops each day for weather prediction and 2. For example, the new NWS supercomputer—an IBM-built massively parallel machine that uses more than conventional microprocessors—will be able to resolve differences in weather for Manhattan and Queens.
The visualization grid size can be varied, allowing greater detail to be seen in some parts of the weather system than others. Integrating visualization tools with high-resolution weather models makes it possible to study the real-time development of storms in three dimensions, albeit crudely compared to what will be possible in the near future.
Advances in modeling and the computational and visualization tools that support them can be made by all three sectors, but access to improved models may vary.
Technology and Human Vulnerability
For most of the last 50 years, technology knew its place. Yes, we all spent a lot of time with it, but even five years ago, few people would seriously claim that technology had taken over their lives. Technology is not only ubiquitous but has become highly intrusive as well. On the Internet, people invent imaginary identities in virtual chat rooms, playing out the lives they wish they really lived. Children are growing up with interactive toy animals that respond to them like real pets.
PDF | Various models of the information society have been developed so far and they are so different from country to country that it sciences, which focuses on the role of ICT in human information knowledge because it is necessary to know the context of its Innovation can be defined as basically novel inventions or.
Technological Influence on Society
Technology society and life or technology and culture refers to the inter-dependency, co-dependence , co-influence, and co-production of technology and society upon one another. Evidence for this synergy has been found since humanity first started using simple tools. The inter-relationship has continued as modern technologies such as the printing press and computers have helped shape society. The first scientific approach to this relationship occurred with the development of tektology , the "science of organization", in early twentieth century Imperial Russia. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools.
Technology affects the way individuals communicate, learn, and think. It helps society and determines how people interact with each other on a daily basis. Technology plays an important role in society today.
Technology has improved the general living standards of many people in the last few decades. Without technology, people would still be living within their geographical confines of their societies. Examples of technological advancements that have made life easier include things like the Internet, phones, tablets, TV, PS and movie and video games. However, these are just the positive attributes of technology; there are also a number of negative effects that it has brought upon the society in general. This research paper seeks to discuss these negative impacts of technology upon the society and the general way of living.
by Mickeel Allen, Alvernia University
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