Soil Biology And Microbiology Mcqs Pdf
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Soil is the major reservoir of microorganisms that produce antibiotics. Considering that soil is densely packed with microorganisms, it is not a wonder that many bacterial and fungal species have evolved over the eons to develop ways of inhibiting their neighbors for the benefit of their own growth. An antibiotic made by a microbe can inhibit many other soil microbes.
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A scientist discovers that a soil bacterium he has been studying produces an antimicrobial that kills gram-negative bacteria. She isolates and purifies the antimicrobial compound, then chemically converts a chemical side chain to a hydroxyl group. When she tests the antimicrobial properties of this new version, she finds that this antimicrobial drug can now also kill gram-positive bacteria.
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Microbiology - Microbiology of Soils
Soil is the major reservoir of microorganisms that produce antibiotics. Considering that soil is densely packed with microorganisms, it is not a wonder that many bacterial and fungal species have evolved over the eons to develop ways of inhibiting their neighbors for the benefit of their own growth. An antibiotic made by a microbe can inhibit many other soil microbes. The bacterial genera Bacillus and Streptomyces along with the fungal genera Penicilium and Cephalosporium are commonly found in soil.
The genus Streptomyces are the most prolific antibiotic producers and, although bacteria, are a unique subgroup of bacteria called the Actinomycetes.
In this experiment you will try to isolate an antibiotic producing bacterium or fungus from the soil. If you succeed at that you will then test that isolate to determine what organisms might be inhibited by the antibiotic that it makes.
Because we want to isolate both bacterial and fungal antibiotic producers, two different kinds of media will be used. Glycerol yeast extract media is for isolation of Streptomyces , while Saboraud dextrose agar medium will be used for the isolation of the fungi. One-half of the groups will look for bacterial isolates and the one half will be looking for fungal isolates. You need to bring a soil sample for this class. An area around trees or bushes, or flowers.
Dry, sun-baked soil is not the best sample. You need only a gram of specimen. Place 6 test tubes into a rack and fill each with 9ml of 0. Let the soil particles settle after shaking and then transfer 1ml of the solution into tube 2. Repeat the above step for tubes , changing 1 ml pipets between each transfer.
Learning Objectives To determine the variety of organisms that live in soil. To identify an antibiotic producer in the above population. To determine if the antibiotic made by the antibiotic producer kills bacteria. Note You need to bring a soil sample for this class. Weigh out 1 gram of soil. Obtain 4 plates of the appropriate agar medium depending on whether your group is searching for bacteria or fungi.
Place 0. Place the spreader into the alcohol solution and then stick it into the flame to catch it on fire. When the fire is out, you have a sterile spreader. Place the spreader on the agar with the 0. If you do not have sufficient colony numbers, re-incubate the plates and carry on the exercise at next period after.
Inoculate each of 2 liquified TSA deeps, one with with 1ml of Staph epidermidis broth culture and the other with 1ml of E. Mix each tube well hand shake or use vortex mixer and then pour the entire contents of each tube into a sterile petri dish.
Slowly swirl the dish around to make sure the liquefied agar is evenly spread over the bottom of the petri dish. Let the media solidify in the dishes. From 1 of your primary isolation plates, choose a colony that looks like it might be Bacillus, Streptomyces, or a fungus. Your instructor will help you choose these colonies as well as show you what these organisms look like on agar plate, using the computer. Circle the colony so you can find it again: you will use that organism against both Staph and E.
Repeat step 5 again with the E. Incubate the plates at 30C until the next lab session. IF you see inhibition, you have probably isolated an antibiotic producer. How many different microorganisms did you see in your soil sample?
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Microbiology , study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute simple life-forms that include bacteria , archaea , algae , fungi , protozoa , and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of both exploiting and controlling their activities. The word microbe was coined in the last quarter of the 19th century to describe these organisms, all of which were thought to be related. As microbiology eventually developed into a specialized science, it was found that microbes are a very large group of extremely diverse organisms. Daily life is interwoven inextricably with microorganisms. In addition to populating both the inner and outer surfaces of the human body , microbes abound in the soil , in the seas, and in the air.
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One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive.
Carolina is your quality source for a well-equipped lab. How are microbial limits and specified microorganisms determined? In determining the appropriate microbial limit, the USP Microbiology Expert Committee considers such matters as the route of administration, the form of the product, and the source material.
Which of the following methods would be used to measure the concentration of bacterial contamination in processed peanut butter? In which phase would you expect to observe the most endospores in a Bacillus cell culture? During which phase would penicillin, an antibiotic that inhibits cell-wall synthesis, be most effective?
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Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand. Here you can find objective type Microbiology Microbiology of Soils questions and answers for interview and entrance examination. Multiple choice and true or false type questions are also provided. You can easily solve all kind of Microbiology questions based on Microbiology of Soils by practicing the objective type exercises given below, also get shortcut methods to solve Microbiology Microbiology of Soils problems.
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Информация, которую он выдал. Если Стратмор получил от Следопыта информацию, значит, тот работал. Она оказалась бессмысленной, потому что он ввел задание в неверной последовательности, но ведь Следопыт работал. Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта. Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов. Поскольку за техникой Третьего узла следили самым тщательным образом, она даже не рассматривала такую возможность.
К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку. Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить. ГЛАВА 51 Джабба был похож на гигантского головастика. Подобно киноперсонажу, в честь которого он и получил свое прозвище, его тело представляло собой шар, лишенный всякой растительности.
Я обязан позвонить в службу безопасности, - решил. - Что еще мне остается? - Он представил Хейла на скамье подсудимых, вываливающего все, что ему известно о Цифровой крепости. - Весь мой план рухнет. Должен быть какой-то другой выход.
Четыре на шестнадцать. - Шестьдесят четыре, - сказала она равнодушно. - Ну и. Дэвид приблизился поближе к камере.