Standard Organization In Data Communication And Networking Pdf

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standard organization in data communication and networking pdf

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What Is a Network Protocol, and How Does It Work?

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Communication protocol

Data means information in digital format and communication means to exchange information between two or many users in anyways like speaking, texting, or any other modes of the medium. So, data communication is simply the exchange of data between two or many users through the transmission media like twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fibers, radio wave, satellite microwave, etc. The user or device that sends the data is the source and the user that receives the data is a receiver. For data interchange to take place, the communicating devices must be a part of a system comprising of a combination of hardware and software. Its efficiency depends on four fundamental characteristics.

Network Standards (Data Communications and Networking)

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A communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules, syntax , semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware , software , or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented.

Data Communication is defined as exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission media such as a cable, wire or it can be air or vacuum also. For occurrence of data communication, communicating devices must be a part of communication system made up of a combination of hardware or software devices and programs. Data Communication System Components : There are mainly five components of a data communication system:. Figure — Components of Data Communication System. A typical example of a data communication system is sending an e-mail. The user which send email act as sender, message is data which user wants to send, receiver is one whom user wants to send message, there are many protocols involved in this entire process, one of them is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP , both sender and receiver must have an internet connection which uses a wireless medium to send and receive email. Attention reader!

The major components of a network are end stations, applications and a network that will support traffic between the end stations. Computer networks all share.

Standards are necessary in almost every business and public service entity. For example, before , fire hose couplings in the United States were not standard, which meant a fire department in one community could not help in another community. The primary reason for standards is to ensure that hardware and software produced by different vendors can work together. Without networking standards, it would be difficult—if not impossible—to develop networks that easily share information. Standards also mean that customers are not locked into one vendor.

The Open Systems Interconnection model OSI model is a conceptual model that characterises and standardises the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard communication protocols.


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    To reduce the design complexity, most of the data communication networks are organized as a series of layers or levels, each one build upon one below it (​Divide.

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