Practical Electronic Fault Finding And Troubleshooting Pdf

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Here are a few:. In a system with identical or parallel subsystems, swap components between those subsystems and see whether or not the problem moves with the swapped component. I was once able to troubleshoot an elusive problem with an automotive engine ignition system using this method: I happened to have a friend with an automobile sharing the exact same model of ignition system.

Practical electronic fault finding and troubleshooting By Robin Pain

Multimeters are ideal items of test equipment for finding many faults in a transistor or other form of electronic circuit. However to use a multimeter to test a circuit and find faults it is necessary to have a little knowledge about the circuit, and also to adopt a logical approach in tracking down any faults that may exist. A little experience knowing the likely faults and failures that occur within the different types of equipment also helps.

The test meter can be used to test these and often locate the fault very quickly. Both analogue multimeters and digital multimeters can be used for these simple tests - the choice normally being made by what is available.

Some electrical and electronics equipment may be mains powered. Only qualified persons should attempt to repair mains powered equipment or equipment that contains high or hazardous voltages. Also, only the right test equipment, with the right certifications and capable of handling high voltages should be used where high voltages are present. High voltages can kill so be warned! The first step when looking at tracing any faults and testing a transistor circuit of any sort is to look for the obvious or major faults.

This is one of the key stages in repairing any equipment. Fortunately most faults with electronics equipment such as transistor radios are relatively easy to find - many are quite obvious and some may not even need any test equipment.

They often arise from movement and physical damage, so it is often easy to find these faults and issues. This is easily done using a multimeter set to a voltage range. Measure the voltage using a test meter at the points where the supply enters the circuit board.

If the multimeter indicates that there is no supply voltage then there can be a number of possibilities to investigate:. Battery could be flat if the equipment is battery powered. Sometimes it may be obvious as the battery may be leaking.

If this is the case remove the battery and clean any residue that may have leaked onto the battery holder and in particular the contacts. The residue can cause the contacts to become corroded, so it is necessary to clean the contacts well. Take care not to touch the residue as it can be corrosive. If the battery condition is not so obvious, then a simple voltage measurement using the test meter can highlight if this is an issue.

Check the voltage with the test meter when the radio is turned on. If the battery cannot supply the current required, then the voltage will fall as the radio is switched on. On-off switch faulty. This can be checked by disconnecting any power source - the power lead must be removed from the power to completely isolate the equipment.

Then check for continuity across the switch, checking it on both on and off positions - use the Ohms range on the multimeter for this. Also remember that the switch may switch both sides on the incoming power, i. If a fuse is present, then it is worth checking tis. Ideally remove the fuse and check for continuity with the multimeter. Its resistance should be less than an Ohm. Corroded connector. One common problem is that connectors become corroded with time and connections can become very poor, especially of the equipment has not been used for some time.

To overcome this it can help to unplug and then re-mate the connector. Check for any broken wiring that would prevent the power reaching the circuit board. With time and movement of the equipment, leads can become fractured. One particular area can be the battery lead - these leads are particularly prone to damage as the need to be moved and if the battery has been replaced in a rough manner this could result in a lead being broken. Check for visual signs, and also use the multimeter Ohms range as well.

Again it is worth checking any connectors that may have corroded or oxidised with time, and check for any broken connections. Again any switches, and connectors along with any broken wires should be checked. Often a multimeter can be used to check the continuity of the wires, but first ensure there is no power applied to the circuit.

Over time switches can fail as dirt and corrosion accumulate on the switch contacts. Dirt and tar can be a particular problem if the equipment is in an environment where smokers are present.

It is possible to check the switch using a multimeter, but sometimes, simply actuating the switch can help clean the contacts. Switch cleaner can also help. By using a multimeter for the fault finding, it is possible to find many of the obvious faults that can occur.

If the problem cannot be found, and it appears that the correct power is reaching the transistor circuit, and the inputs are all connected and present as well as the output lines being intact, then further fault finding on the transistor circuit board itself may be needed.

Again a multimeter can assist in this. If the fault is not one of the very obvious ones, then a little more circuit knowledge may be required along with some simple test instruments.

The test meter is one of the key pieces of test equipment, but a few other tricks of the trade can be used for the testing. One of the key techniques is to adopt a systematic approach so that it is possible to home in on the issue. Often it is best to work from the edge inwards. For radios it is often good to work from the loudspeaker backwards, as it is possible to inject signals and see how they come out of the speaker, working progressively back through the radio to see where the signal does not work any more.

For other items it may be best to work the other way, but each needs to be determined according to the item being repaired. Looking at the example of the transistor radio, one test could be with the radio operating touch the probe of the test meter onto the centre pin of the volume control with the volume control turned part way up.

As the multimeter probe is touched onto the centre pin, a small click should be heard. If some other form of audio signal injector, signal generator, etc is available, then this too could be used, but often the test meter probe is much easier for a quick check. If the audio amplifier works, then it is necessary to move back a stage. Most radios are superheterodyne radios, so the IF amplifier stages can be checked next.

Set a signal generator to the intermediate frequency typically about kHz for old AM broadcast radios and Introduce modulation if possible, otherwise listen for the carrier. The superheterodyne radio uses a technique where incoming signals are mixed or multiplied with the signal from an internally generated local oscillator.

In this way the signals can be converted in frequency to an intermediate frequency where they can be filtered. By using a variable frequency local oscillator, a fixed frequency intermediate frequency filter can be used. Read more about the Superheterodyne Radio. If the LO works, then the issue is most likely in the RF stages. Again, inject a signal and see what happens. It could be the stage does not work at all, or it may be insensitive.

By adopting a logical approach like that for the radio in the example above, it is possible to home in on the area of the fault. The actual approach will depend upon the item under test, but often expensive test equipment is not required, and a test meter such as an analogue test meter or digital multimeter can be used.

Once the area in which the fault is located has been found, then testing of the circuit using a multimeter can start. When testing a particular transistor circuit, a multimeter can be used to determine if the voltages around the circuit are correct.

To test and fault find a particular transistor circuit, it is necessary to have an idea what the steady voltages should be. The circuit below is a typical basic transistor circuit. Many circuits are similar to it, and it provides good starting point to explain some of the points to note. The circuit shows several of the points where the voltage can be measured in a circuit.

Most of them are measured with respect to ground. This is the easiest way to make a voltage measurement because the "common" or negative probe can be clipped to a suitable ground point many black probes used for the negative line have a crocodile or alligator clip for this purpose. Then all the measurements can be made relative to ground.

There are normally a number of points around a transistor circuit that are easy to measure, and the expected voltages can be anticipated for the most part if a few assumptions are made:. If the assumptions above are true, then the following voltages can be expected.

If not then allowances need to be made for the changes. In addition to this, there are many other types of circuit which may need fault finding. Switching circuits are quite common these days where transistors are used to drive other elements such as relays or other devices. These do not operate in a linear mode. Instead all voltages are either on or off. The collector voltage will either be approximately zero when the transistor is on, and approximately the rail voltage when off.

The emitter will usually be connected to ground, and the base voltage will be high, i. A test meter, either an analogue multimeter or a digital multimeter is an ideal piece of test equipment to help with fault finding an electronics transistor circuit.

Often circuits like transistor radios fail after they have been used for many years, and it is useful to be able to mend them Also when constructing equipment, circuits do not always work first time and it is necessary to fault-find these circuits. While it will not be possible to solve all problems using a multimeter, it is one of the most useful basic tools for any fault finding job. A word of warning Some electrical and electronics equipment may be mains powered.

Note on the Superheterodyne Radio: The superheterodyne radio uses a technique where incoming signals are mixed or multiplied with the signal from an internally generated local oscillator. Supplier Directory For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it.

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Transistor Circuit Test & Fault Finding using a Multimeter

Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Electronic circuit fault diagnosis methods based on improved Support Vector Machines Abstract: In nowadays, fault diagnosis method for analog circuit based on support vector machines, has become a hot topic in research field of fault diagnosis. However, in practical application of this method, the imbalanced problem occurred in fault sample dataset has greatly influenced its effectiveness.

It isn't enough to be able to design. It isn't even enough to be able to debug. To be a real fault finder, you must be able to get a feel for what is going on in the circuit you are examining. In this book Robin Pain explains the basic techniques needed to be fault finder. Simple circuit examples are used to illustrate principles and concepts fundamental to the process of fault finding.


Get this from a library! Practical electronic fault finding and troubleshooting. [​Robin Pain].


Transistor Circuit Test & Fault Finding using a Multimeter

Multimeters are ideal items of test equipment for finding many faults in a transistor or other form of electronic circuit. However to use a multimeter to test a circuit and find faults it is necessary to have a little knowledge about the circuit, and also to adopt a logical approach in tracking down any faults that may exist. A little experience knowing the likely faults and failures that occur within the different types of equipment also helps.

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Electronic test equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test DUTs. In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead to extremely complex and sophisticated such as automatic test equipment ATE. ATE often includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms.

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Practical Electronic Fault-Finding and Troubleshooting

It isn't enough to be able to design. It isn't even enough to be able to debug. To be a real fault finder, you must be able to get a feel for what is going on in the circuit you are examining. In this book Robin Pain explains the basic techniques needed to be fault finder. Simple circuit examples are used to illustrate principles and concepts fundamental to the process of fault finding. This is not a book of theory. It is a book of practical tips, hints, and rules of thumb, all of which will equip the reader to tackle any job, whether it is fixing a TV, improving the sound from a hi-fi, or locating the fault in a piece of process equipment.

 - Мигель Буисан. - Понятно. Она получит ваше письмо утром. - Спасибо, - улыбнулся Беккер и повернулся, собираясь уходить. Консьерж бросил внимательный взгляд в его спину, взял конверт со стойки и повернулся к полке с номерными ячейками. Когда он клал конверт в одну из ячеек, Беккер повернулся, чтобы задать последний вопрос: - Как мне вызвать такси.


Practical Electronic Fault-Finding and Troubleshooting ROBIN PAIN amateur who is interested in electronic fault finding but finds books on the subject too to read online, online library, greatbooks to read, PDF best books to read, top books​.


 - Тебе удалось стереть электронную почту Хейла. - Нет, - сконфуженно ответила. - Ты нашла ключ. Сьюзан покачала головой.

Беккер огляделся: - Понимаю. Это ужасно. Простите, что я так долго до вас добирался.

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