Hidtory Of World War 1 And 2 Pdf
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- HSC history - The world at the beginning of the Twentieth Century:Causes of World War 1
- HSC history - The world at the beginning of the Twentieth Century:Causes of World War 1
- World War II
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The armed forces were greatly expanded and reorganised—the war marked the founding of the Royal Air Force. The highly controversial introduction, in January , of conscription for the first time in British history followed the raising of the largest all-volunteer army in history, known as Kitchener's Army , of more than 2,, men.
Nav Menu 2. Historical and literacy skills are developed through interpreting photographs and secondary sources, locating and categorising information and studying the impact of the wartime experience. About the series: While very suitable for the regular classroom, each of t he Achieve! This series has been written to match the new Australian History Curriculum.
HSC history - The world at the beginning of the Twentieth Century:Causes of World War 1
Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. The Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April , when it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated.
Germany's strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within 6 weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire also, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe.
The Entente and its allies eventually became known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies became known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of , the Western Front settled into a war of attrition , marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until the Eastern Front , by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory.
In , Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in and Greece joined the Allies in , expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war materiel to the Allies.
Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the declaration by Germany that its navy would resume unrestricted attacks on neutral shipping, and the revelation that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to initiate war against the United States, the U. Trained American forces did not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid, but the American Expeditionary Force ultimately reached some two million troops.
Though Serbia was defeated in , and Romania joined the Allied Powers in only to be defeated in , none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until The February Revolution in Russia replaced the Monarchy with the Provisional Government , but continuing discontent with the cost of the war led to the October Revolution , the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic , and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March , ending Russia's involvement in the war.
Germany now controlled much of eastern Europe and transferred large numbers of combat troops to the Western Front. Using new tactics , the German March Offensive was initially successful. The Allies fell back and held. The last of the German reserves were exhausted as 10, fresh American troops arrived every day. The Allies drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive , a continual series of attacks to which the Germans had no reply.
World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four Britain, France, the United States, and Italy imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the Paris Peace Conference , the most well known being the German peace treaty: the Treaty of Versailles.
However, despite the conclusive Allied victory and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars , a second world war followed just over twenty years later. The term "world war" was first used in September by German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel , who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' This is the Great War.
For much of the 19th century, the major European powers had tried to maintain a tenuous balance of power among themselves, resulting in a complex network of political and Military alliances. French desire for revenge over the defeat of , known as revanchism , and the recovery of Alsace-Lorraine became a principal object of French policy for the next forty years see French—German enmity.
Concerned by Russia's victory in the — Russo-Turkish War and its influence in the Balkans , the League was dissolved in , with Germany and Austria-Hungary subsequently forming the Dual Alliance ; this became the Triple Alliance when Italy joined in The practical details of these alliances were limited, since their primary purpose was to ensure cooperation between the three Imperial Powers, and to isolate France.
Attempts by Britain in to resolve colonial tensions with Russia and diplomatic moves by France led to Bismarck reforming the League in The agreements did not constitute formal alliances, but by settling long-standing colonial disputes, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility.
These interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente. The creation of the German Reich following victory in the Franco-Prussian War led to a massive increase in Germany's economic and industrial strength.
This resulted in the Anglo-German naval arms race. This was driven by Russia's recovery from the Revolution , specifically increased investment post in railways and infrastructure in its western border regions.
Germany and Austria-Hungary relied on faster mobilisation to compensate for fewer numbers; it was concern at the closing of this gap that led to the end of the naval race, rather than a reduction in tension elsewhere. When Germany expanded its standing army by , men in , France extended compulsory military service from two to three years; similar measures taken by the Balkan powers and Italy, which led to increased expenditure by the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary.
Absolute figures are hard to calculate, due to differences in categorising expenditure, while they often omit civilian infrastructure projects with a military use, such as railways. In October , Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of — by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina , which it had occupied since The Balkans came to be known as the " powder keg of Europe ".
The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian state while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro , and Greece.
The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces, which Austria-Hungary had annexed from the Ottoman Empire, so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. Some nearby were injured by the blast, but Ferdinand's convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them. About an hour later, when Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood.
With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Although they were reportedly not personally close, the Emperor Franz Joseph was profoundly shocked and upset. The reaction among the people in Austria, however, was mild, almost indifferent.
On Sunday and Monday 28 and 29 June , the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened. The Austro-Hungarian authorities encouraged the subsequent anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo , in which Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks killed two Bosnian Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings. Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5, prominent Serbs, to 2, of whom died in prison.
A further Serbs were sentenced to death. A predominantly Bosniak special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.
Austria-Hungary correctly believed that Serbian officials especially the officers of the Black Hand had been involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, and wanted to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia. Serbia accepted all the terms of the ultimatum except for articles five and six, which demanded that Austrian-Hungarian representatives be allowed to assist in suppressing subversive elements inside Serbia's borders and to participate in the investigation and trial of Serbians linked to the assassination.
Finally, on 28 July , a month after the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding its mobilisation be stopped, and a commitment not to support Serbia. Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defence of Serbia.
The German government issued demands to France that it remain neutral whilst they decided which deployment plan to implement, it being extremely difficult to change the deployment once it was underway. Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing Aufmarsch II West. The British cabinet decided on 29 July that being a signatory to the treaty about Belgium did not oblige it to oppose a German invasion of Belgium with military force. Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march into Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George V , who made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding.
Eventually the Kaiser told Moltke, "Now you can do what you want. For years, the French had been aware of intelligence indicating that Germany planned to attack France through Belgium. General Joseph Joffre , chief of staff of the French military from , inquired about the possibility of moving some French troops into Belgium to pre-empt such a move by Germany, but France's civilian leadership rejected this idea. Joffre was told that France would not be the first power to violate Belgian neutrality and that any French move into Belgium could come only after the Germans had already invaded.
The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in , but those had never been tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.
This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts. Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizeable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.
The plan was to quickly knock France out of the war, then redeploy to the East and do the same to Russia. Schlieffen deliberately kept the German left i. Consequently, as the German Army increased in size in the years leading up to the war, he changed the allocation of forces between the German right and left wings from to Ultimately, Moltke's changes meant insufficient forces to achieve decisive success and thus unrealistic goals and timings.
The initial German advance in the West was very successful: by the end of August the Allied left, which included the British Expeditionary Force BEF , was in full retreat ; French casualties in the first month exceeded ,, including 27, killed on 22 August during the Battle of the Frontiers.
In , the Russian Stavka had agreed with the French to attack Germany within 15 days of mobilisation; this was unrealistic and the two Russian armies that entered East Prussia on 17 August did so without many of their support elements. By the end of , German troops held strong defensive positions inside France, controlled the bulk of France's domestic coalfields and had inflicted , more casualties than it lost itself.
However, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of a decisive outcome, and it had failed to achieve the primary objective of avoiding a long, two-front war. It will go on for a long time but lost it is already.
Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French, and German colonial forces in Africa. On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war. Germany attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, instigating uprisings in India , and sending a mission that urged Afghanistan to join the war on the side of Central Powers.
However, contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain. Gandhi and others. Military tactics developed before World War I failed to keep pace with advances in technology and had become obsolete. These advances had allowed the creation of strong defensive systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artillery , vastly more lethal than in the s, coupled with machine guns , made crossing open ground extremely difficult.
In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and the tank. After the First Battle of the Marne 5—12 September , Allied and German forces unsuccessfully tried to outflank each other, a series of manoeuvres later known as the " Race to the Sea ". By the end of , the opposing forces were left confronting each other along an uninterrupted line of entrenched positions from Alsace to Belgium's North Sea coast.
Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Allies built tanks in large numbers, whilst the Germans employed only a few of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.
Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Throughout —17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides.
Strategically, while the Germans mounted only one major offensive, the Allies made several attempts to break through the German lines.
HSC history - The world at the beginning of the Twentieth Century:Causes of World War 1
The economic history of World War I covers the methods used by the First World War — , as well as related postwar issues such as war debts and reparations. It also covers the economic mobilization of labor, industry, and agriculture leading to economic failure. It deals with economic warfare such as the blockade of Germany, and with some issues closely related to the economy, such as military issues of transportation. For a broader perspective see Home front during World War I. All of the powers in expected a short war; none had made any economic preparations for a long war, such as stockpiling food or critical raw materials.
Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. The Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April , when it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated. Germany's strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within 6 weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire also, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe.
World War II , also called Second World War , conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years — The war was in many respects a continuation, after an uneasy year hiatus , of the disputes left unsettled by World War I. The 40,,—50,, deaths incurred in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history. Great Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. The war between the U.
With the signing of the Armistice on November 11, , the World War has 1. The Serbian Government to give formal assurance of its condemnation of Serb 2. The next issue of the Serbian "Official Journal" was to contain a declaration to.
World War II
It ended with the defeat of the Central Powers. The war was virtually unprecedented in the slaughter, carnage, and destruction it caused. After four years of combat and the deaths of some 8. World War I combat was a clash between 19th-century tactics and 20th-century technology.
One of its most important legacies was the reordering of the map of Africa roughly as it is today. The First World War was essentially a quarrel between European powers which involved Africa, both directly and indirectly, because at the outbreak of hostilities the greater part of it was ruled by the European belligerents. Mor e than a million African soldiers were involved in these campaigns or campaigns in Europe. Even more men, as well as wome and children, were recruited, often forcibly, as carriers to support armies whose supplies could not be moved by conventional methods such as road, rail or packanimal. Over soldiers and carriers lost their lives during the war.
Ну и чертовщина.
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- Стратмор обошел фильтры. Я в этом уверена. - Она подошла вплотную к окну. Бринкерхофф почувствовал, как его тело покрывается холодным. Мидж продолжала читать. Мгновение спустя она удовлетворенно вскрикнула: - Я так и знала.
Уже два часа утра. - Pi'dame uno. Вызовите мне машину. Мужчина достал мобильник, сказал несколько слов и выключил телефон. - Veinte minutos, - сказал. -Двадцать минут? - переспросил Беккер. - Yel autobus.
Он остался в живых. Это было настоящее чудо. Священник готовился начать молитву. Беккер осмотрел свой бок. На рубашке расплывалось красное пятно, хотя кровотечение вроде бы прекратилось.
1. 4º ESO - First World War. The First World War Juan Carlos Geography and History – Bilingual Studies – IES Parque de Lisboa, Alcorcón (Madrid) German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, changed dramatically the international situation.
- Его голос доносился как будто из его чрева. Он протянул руку. - El anillo.
- А что Следопыт. Я сижу у себя точно на раскаленных углях. - Пока .
Бринкерхофф не уходил с дороги. - Это тебе велел Фонтейн? - спросила. Бринкерхофф отвернулся.
Худоба и неловкость подростка бесследно исчезли. С годами она приобрела гибкость и грацию. У нее была высокая стройная фигура с пышной грудью и по-юношески плоским животом.
Если не преследовать Хейла, черный ход останется секретом. Но Стратмор понимал, что Хейл не станет долго держать язык за зубами. И все же… секрет Цифровой крепости будет служить Хейлу единственной гарантией, и он, быть может, будет вести себя благоразумно. Как бы там ни было, Стратмор знал, что Хейла можно будет всегда ликвидировать в случае необходимости.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ выступал серым силуэтом в слабом сумеречном свете, проникавшем сквозь купол потолка. Все лампы наверху погасли. Не было видно даже кнопочных электронных панелей на дверях кабинетов.
СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА - Правда? - спросила. - Какая правда.
Такой поиск, по существу, представляет собой команду компьютеру просмотреть все строки знаков на жестком диске, сравнить их с данными громадного по объему словаря и пометить те из них, которые кажутся бессмысленными или произвольными. Это сложнейшая работа, заключающаяся в постоянном отсеивании лишнего, но она вполне выполнима. Сьюзан понимала, что, по всей логике, именно ей предстояло решить эту задачу. Она вздохнула, надеясь, что ей не придется раскаиваться в том, чем она собиралась заняться.
- Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк. - Так что же вы предлагаете? - спросила Сьюзан. Она хотела только одного - поскорее уйти. Стратмор на минуту задумался. - Не спрашивай меня, как это случилось, - сказал он, уставившись в закрытый люк.
Коммандер, недовольный необходимостью говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания, попросил Дэвида не звонить, пока кольцо не окажется в его руках. Он решил было обратиться в полицию - может быть, у них есть данные о рыжеволосых проститутках, - но Стратмор на этот счет выразился недвусмысленно: Вы должны оставаться невидимым. Никто не должен знать о существовании кольца. Может быть, стоит побродить по Триане, кварталу развлечений, и поискать там эту рыжую девицу. Или же обойти все рестораны - вдруг этот тучный немец окажется .
Телефон звонил не переставая. Джабба решил не обращать на него внимания. - Мидж, - беззвучно выдавил он, - черт тебя дери. В шифровалке все в порядке! - Телефон не унимался. Джабба принялся устанавливать на место новый чип.
Она проклинала Хейла, недоумевая, каким образом ему удалось заполучить ее персональный код и с чего это вдруг его заинтересовал ее Следопыт. Встав, Сьюзан решительно направилась подошла к терминалу Хейла. Экран монитора был погашен, но она понимала, что он не заперт: по краям экрана было видно свечение. Криптографы редко запирали свои компьютеры, разве что покидая Третий узел на ночь. Обычно они лишь уменьшали их яркость; кодекс чести гарантировал, что никто в их отсутствие к терминалу не прикоснется.
Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня. - Табу Иуда, - произнес тот как ни в чем не бывало. Беккер посмотрел на него с недоумением. Панк сплюнул в проход, явно раздраженный невежеством собеседника.