Fraud And Misrepresentation In Contract Law Pdf

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Many contracts are based upon information provided in written applications, including insurance and employment contracts. However, the remedies used in these two contexts for material misrepresentation in the application differ. Insurers use the remedy of rescission and restitution, which returns the parties to status quo ante.

This article talks about Misrepresentation in Contract. If the misrepresentation is identified, the contract can be declared void and depending on the situation, the unfavourably impacted party may seek damages. In such a contract dispute, the party who made the misrepresentation becomes the defendant and the aggrieved party is the plaintiff.

Remedies for misrepresentation in applications in the presence of fraudulent intent

In common law jurisdictions, a misrepresentation is an untrue or misleading [1] statement of fact made during negotiations by one party to another, the statement then inducing that other party to enter into a contract. The law of misrepresentation is an amalgam of contract and tort ; and its sources are common law , equity and statute. The common law was amended by the Misrepresentation Act The general principle of misrepresentation has been adopted by the USA and various Commonwealth countries, e.

A "representation" is a pre-contractual statement made during negotiations. Factors that determine whether or not a representation has become a term include:. Otherwise, an action may lie in misrepresentation, and perhaps in the torts of negligence and deceit also. Although a suit for breach of contract is relatively straightforward, there are advantages in bringing a parallel suit in misrepresentation, because whereas repudiation is available only for breach of condition, [17] rescission is prima facie available for all misreps, subject to the provisions of s.

For a misrepresentation to occur, especially a negligent misrepresentation, the following elements need to be satisfied. There is no general duty of disclosure in English contract law, and one is normally not obliged to say anything. However in particular relationships silence may form the basis of an actionable misrepresentation: [21] [22]. To amount to a misrepresentation, the statement must be untrue or seriously misleading. Statements of opinion are usually insufficient to amount to a misrepresentation [38] as it would be unreasonable to treat personal opinions as "facts", as in Bisset v Wilkinson.

Statements of intention do not constitute misrepresentations should they fail to come to fruition, since the time the statements were made they can not be deemed either true or false. However, an action can be brought if the intention never actually existed, as in Edgington v Fitzmaurice. For many years, statements of law were deemed incapable of amounting to misrepresentations because the law is "equally accessible by both parties" and is " An action in misrepresentation can only be brought by the misled party, or "representee".

This means that only those who were an intended recipient of the representation may sue, as in Peek v Gurney , [51] where the plaintiff sued the directors of a company for indemnity. The action failed because it was found that the plaintiff was not a representee an intended party to the representation and accordingly misrepresentation could not be a protection.

It is not necessary for the representation to have been be received directly; it is sufficient that the representation was made to another party with the intention that it would become known to a subsequent party and ultimately acted upon by them.

The misled party must show that he relied on the misstatement and was induced into the contract by it. In Attwood v Small , [53] the seller, Small, made false claims about the capabilities of his mines and steelworks. The buyer, Attwood, said he would verify the claims before he bought, and he employed agents who declared that Small's claims were true.

The House of Lords held that Attwood could not rescind the contract, as he did not rely on Small but instead relied on his agents. Edgington v Fitzmaurice [54] confirmed further that a misrepresentation need not be the sole cause of entering a contract, for a remedy to be available, so long as it is an influence. A party induced by a misrepresentation is not obliged to check its veracity.

Redgrave said Hurd could inspect the accounts to check the claim, but Hurd did not do so. By contrast, in Leaf v International Galleries , [61] where a gallery sold painting after wrongly saying it was a Constable , Lord Denning held that while there was neither breach of contract nor operative mistake, there was a misrepresentation; but, five years having passed, the buyer's right to rescind had lapsed.

This suggests that, having relied on a misrepresentation, the misled party has the onus to discover the truth "within a reasonable time". In Doyle v Olby [], [62] a party misled by a fraudulent misrepresentation was deemed NOT to have affirmed even after more than a year. Within trade and commerce, the law regarding misrepresentation is dealt with by the Australian Consumer Law, under Section 18 and 29 of this code, the ACL calls contractual misrepresentations as "misleading and deceptive conduct" and imposes a prohibition.

The ACL provides for remedies, such as damages, injunctions, rescission of the contract, and other measures.

In England, the common law was codified and amended by the Misrepresentation Act Although short and apparently succinct, the Act is widely regarded as a confusing and poorly drafted statute which has caused a number of difficulties, especially in relation to the basis of the award of damages. Prior to the Misrepresentation Act , the common law deemed that there were two categories of misrepresentation: fraudulent and innocent.

The effect of the act is primarily to create a new category by dividing innocent misrepresentation into two separate categories: negligent and "wholly" innocent; and it goes on to state the remedies in respect of each of the three categories.

Once misrepresentation has been proven, it is presumed to be "negligent misrepresentation", the default category. It then falls to the claimant to prove that the defendant's culpability was more serious and that the misrepresentation was fraudulent. Conversely, the defendant may try to show that his misrepresentation was innocent. Negligent misstatement is not strictly part of the law of misrepresentation, but is a tort based upon the obiter dicta in Hedley Byrne v Heller [71] where the House of Lords found that a negligently-made statement if relied upon could be actionable provided a "special relationship" existed between the parties.

Depending on the type of misrepresentation, remedies such as recission , or damages , or a combination of both may be available.

Tortious liability may also be considered. Several countries, such as Australia have a statutory schema which deals with misrepresentations under consumer law. A contract vitiated by misrepresentation is voidable and not void ab initio. The misled party may either i rescind, or ii affirm and continue to be bound. If the claimant chooses to rescind, the contract will still be deemed to have been valid up to the time it was avoided, so any transactions with a third party remains valid, and the third party will retain good title.

Rescission is an equitable remedy which is not always available. A misled party who, knowing of the misrepresentation, fails to take steps to avoid the contract will be deemed to have affirmed through " laches ", as in Leaf v International Galleries ; [78] [79] [80] and the claimant will be estopped from rescinding. The time limit for taking such steps varies depending on the type of misrepresentation. In cases of fraudulent misrepresentation, the time limit runs until when the misrepresentation ought to have been discovered, whereas in innocent misrepresentation, the right to rescission may lapse even before the represent can reasonably be expected to know about it.

Sometimes, third party rights may intervene and render rescission impossible. Say, if A misleads B and contracts to sell a house to him, and B later sells to C, the courts are unlikely to permit rescission as that would unfair impinge upon C. Under Misrepresentations Act s. In contract [82] and tort, [83] damages will be awarded if the breach of contract or breach of duty causes foreseeable loss.

In , Royscot Trust Ltd v Rogerson [85] changed all that. The court gave a literal interpretation of s. The phrase shall be so liable was read literally to mean "liable as in fraudulent misrepresentation". So, under the Misrepresentation Act , damages for negligent misrepresentation are calculated as if the defendant had been fraudulent, even if he has been merely careless.

This is known as the fiction of fraud and also extends to tortious liability. Misrepresentation is one of several vitiating factors that can affect the validity of a contract. Other vitiating factors include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Untrue or misleading statement of fact made by one party to another in legal setting or during contract negotiation.

For the documentary, see Miss Representation. Carter v Boehm 3 Burr Redgrave v Hurd 20 Ch D 1. Misrepresentation Act Misrepresentation in English law. Main article: Rescission contract law. Main article: Damages. Main article: Vitiating factors in the law of contract. They gave her a contract to sign and she asked the assistant what it was. The assistant said it merely covered risk to the beads, but in fact the contract exempted all liability. The dress was stained but the exclusion was ineffective because of the assistant's misrepresentation, and the claim was allowed.

Justice Fry commented on the responsibilities of a fiduciary " The agent knew of the picture's true worth yet bought it for a considerably lower price.

The plaintiff subsequently discovered the picture's true worth and sued to rescind the contract. It was held that the defendant was in a fiduciary relationship with the plaintiff and accordingly assumed an obligation to disclose all material facts. Accordingly, the contract could be rescinded. The employer favoured single women. It was held that she had made no misrepresentation.

The elder brother was under the impression that he was born out of wedlock and thus not their father's true heir. The agreement was reached on this basis. The elder brother subsequently discovered that this was not the case and that the younger brother had knowledge of this during the negotiation of the settlement.

The elder brother sued to set aside the agreement and was successful on the grounds that such a contract was one of uberrimae fidei and the required disclosure had not been executed. The contract proceeded on the grounds that such a tenant had been arranged.

Unbeknown to Krakowski, Eurolynx had entered into an additional agreement with the tenant to provide funds for the first three months rent to ensure the contract went ahead. When the tenant defaulted on the rent and subsequently vacated the premises, Krakowski found out about the additional agreement and rescinded the contract with Eurolynx.

It was held that Eurolynx's failure to disclose all material facts about the 'strong tenant' was enough to constitute a misrepresentation and the contract could be rescinded on these grounds. Osman [] VR 57, an agent had advertised some cattle as being "well-suited for breeding purposes". Later on, it was discovered that the stock had been exposed to a contagious disease which affected the reproductive system. It was held that the agent had a duty to take remedial action and correct the representation.

The failure by the agent to take such measures resulted in the contract being set aside. Before the contract was signed, the practice took a downward turn and lost a significant amount of value. After the contract had been entered into, the true nature of the practice was discovered and the plaintiff took action in misrepresentation.

In his decision, Lord Wright said, " The state of mind is an existing fact, therefore, a false presentation of an existing fact, so that the contract was voidable. While dealing with a mistake of law, similar reasoning should apply to a misrepresentation of law. If a statement is an honest expression of opinion, honestly entertained, it cannot be said that it involves a fraudulent misrepresentation of fact.


The legal concept of misrepresentation is a complicated area. Its meaning and the legal remedies available will depend on the specifics of the misrepresentation made and the circumstances of the parties. Whether you are more likely to be a representor or representee, it is important to understand this area and have some idea of what you can do to reduce the chance of your falling victim to it or being held liable for it. Here we seek to shed some light on misrepresentation in contract law. In contract law, a misrepresentation is a statement made by one contracting party to another which is not true, and which encourages the other contracting party to enter into the contract, as a result of which he suffers loss. These statements often arise in the course of negotiations and do not become part of the contract. Let us consider the elements in more detail.

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where such representations later turn out to be false. Keywords: common law, contract law, representations, misrepresentation, fraudulent.

CACI No. 1900. Intentional Misrepresentation

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The Practice Notes in this subtopic consider claims brought for misrepresentation whether innocent, negligent or fraudulently made and for negligent misstatement; and the various exclusions of liability, defences and remedies that may be available. A claim for misrepresentation arises where one party to a contract the representor made an untrue statement of fact that induced the other the representee to enter into the contract. Claims for misrepresentation are governed by both the common law and the Misrepresentation Act MA Where there has been a misrepresentation, the representee has a right to rescind the contract whether the misrepresentation was made:.

Page last updated October Intentional Misrepresentation. To establish. That [ name of defendant ] represented to [ name of plaintiff ] that a. That [ name of defendant ] knew that the representation was false.

In common law jurisdictions, a misrepresentation is an untrue or misleading [1] statement of fact made during negotiations by one party to another, the statement then inducing that other party to enter into a contract. The law of misrepresentation is an amalgam of contract and tort ; and its sources are common law , equity and statute.

Внезапный прилив энергии позволил ей освободиться из объятий коммандера. Шум ТРАНСТЕКСТА стал оглушающим. Огонь приближался к вершине. ТРАНСТЕКСТ стонал, его корпус готов был вот-вот рухнуть. Голос Дэвида точно вел ее, управляя ее действиями.

 Довольно, Грег, - тихо сказал Стратмор. Хейл крепче обхватил Сьюзан и шепнул ей на ухо: - Стратмор столкнул его вниз, клянусь. - Она не клюнет на твою тактику разделяй и властвуй, - сказал Стратмор, подходя еще ближе.  - Отпусти .


 - Он похлопал Беккера по спине.  - Получите удовольствие, профессор. Вы летали когда-нибудь на Лирджете-60. Беккер усмехнулся: - Давненько не летал. Со вчерашнего дня.

 Премного благодарен, приятель! - крикнул тот ему вслед.  - Увидишь Меган, передавай от меня привет! - Но Беккер уже исчез. Двуцветный вздохнул и поплелся к танцующим.

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И в тот же миг ей открылась ужасающая правда: Грег Хейл вовсе не заперт внизу - он здесь, в Третьем узле.


  1. Luca G. 05.05.2021 at 11:36

    Can silence amount to a fraudulent misrepresentation?